Artikel 173: Unterrichtsstunden in den islamischen Wissenschaften und der arabischen Sprache müssen wöchentlich in demselben quantitativen und zeitlichen Stundenumfang erteilt werden wie die übrigen Wissenszweige.
Article 173: There must be weekly classes in Islamic sciences and Arabic, with the same time and amount allocated as the classes for the rest of the sciences.
The taught subjects are of two types: scientific knowledge to develop the mind, in order that the person can judge the words, actions and objects from the angle of their reality and characteristics, and from the angle of their adaptation to human nature – such as chemistry, physics, astronomy, mathematics and other experimental sciences. This knowledge has no direct relationship with the building of the personality. As for the Shari’ah knowledge of the words, actions and objects, in order to explain the defining Shari’ah rule (Taklifi), if it was obligatory, recommended, permitted, disliked or prohibited, or to explain the Ahkam Al-Wad’ such as whether it was a cause, condition or prevention, or a concession (Rukhsa) or an original rule (‘Azimah), or if it was valid (Sahih), void (Batil) or defective (Fasid), and accordingly the Islamic mentality is built. If these Shari’ah rules are accompanied by the goal of getting the Muslim to take an Islamic position towards objects, actions and words in terms of their inclinations towards or against them, and to take or leave them when fulfilling their bodily needs and instincts, then the Islamic disposition is built. The Islamic personality is built from the Islamic mentality and disposition, which makes the Islamic belief (‘Aqeedah) the basis for its thoughts and inclinations.
Islam asks the Muslim to think about the creation of the universe, mankind and life, such as His (swt) words:
((وَيَتَفَكَّرُونَ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ)) [آل عمران 191]، وقوله: ((أَفَلَا يَنْظُرُونَ إِلَى الْإِبِلِ كَيْفَ خُلِقَتْ)) [الغاشية]، وقوله: ((كَذَلِكَ يُحْيِي اللَّهُ الْمَوْتَى وَيُرِيكُمْ آَيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ))
“And give thought to the creation of the heavens and the earth.” (TMQ 3:191): “Then do they not look at the camels - how they are created?” (TMQ 88:17)and: “Thus does Allah bring the dead to life, and He shows you His signs that you might reason.” (TMQ 2:73). In the same manner, Islam also asks the Muslim to adhere to the Shari’ah rules in his laws, actions and inclinations: He (swt) said:
((فَلَا وَرَبِّكَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّى يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُوا فِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ حَرَجًا مِمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَيُسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمًا)) [النساء]، وقوله تعالى: ((وَمَا آَتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانْتَهُوا)) [الحشر 7]، وقوله: ((لَا تَتَّخِذُوا آَبَاءَكُمْ وَإِخْوَانَكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ إِنِ اسْتَحَبُّوا الْكُفْرَ عَلَى الْإِيمَانِ)) [التوبة 23]، وقوله: ((وَقُلِ اعْمَلُوا فَسَيَرَى اللَّهُ عَمَلَكُمْ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَسَتُرَدُّونَ إِلَى عَالِمِ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ فَيُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ)) (105)
“But no, by your Lord, they will not [truly] believe until they make you, [O Muhammad], judge concerning that over which they dispute among themselves and then find within themselves no discomfort from what you have judged and submit in [full, willing] submission.” (TMQ 4:65),and: “And whatever the Messenger has given you - take; and what he has forbidden you - refrain from.” (TMQ 59:7), and: “O you who have believed, do not take your fathers or your brothers as allies if they have preferred disbelief over belief.” (TMQ 9:23), and: “And say, "Do [as you will], for Allah will see your deeds, and [so, will] His Messenger and the believers. And you will be returned to the Knower of the unseen and the witnessed, and He will inform you of what you used to do."” (TMQ 9:105).
Just as it is requested from the school to be the first incubator to build the distinguished Islamic personality, in the knowledge of the rules of the basis of jurisprudence (Usul Al-Fiqh), language and Tafsir, it is also requested to be the first incubator to build the distinguished Islamic personality with the scientific knowledge such as atomic science, astronomy and computing. The Islamic Ummah which gave birth to leaders in politics, governance and Jihad such as Abu Bakr (ra), Khalid (ra) and Salah Al-Deen, is the same Ummah which gave birth to the scholars in jurisprudence and science such as Al-Shafi’i, Al-Bukhari, Al-Khawarizmi and Ibn Al-Haytham. The goal of teaching all of this knowledge in the school stage is to build the Islamic personality of the student, and to prepare him to enter into the realm of practical life, or to prepare him to continue higher studies in order to create distinguished personalities which are necessary to raise the intellectual and scientific level of the Ummah, and to prepare it to lead the world to take all the people from the darkness of disbelief to the light of Islam, and from the oppression of man made law to the justice of the Shari’ah law. And in the same manner to work to harness what is in the heavens and the earth for the benefit and well being of mankind in that which pleases Allah (swt), in accordance with His (swt) words:
((وَابْتَغِ فِيمَا آَتَاكَ اللَّهُ الدَّارَ الْآَخِرَةَ وَلَا تَنْسَ نَصِيبَكَ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا))
“But seek, through that which Allah has given you, the home of the Hereafter; and [yet], do not forget your share of the world.” (TMQ 28:77).
Based upon this, there will be classes in scientific and Shari’ah knowledge, and it is obligatory to balance the classes to meet the requirements of the two sections in order for the Muslim to be capable to live on this earth which Allah (swt) made him a successor upon, in a manner which Allah (swt) and His Messenger love.
The scientific knowledge that we are concerned with are those that do not have a direct relationship with the viewpoint about life, and do not emanate from the Islamic belief, but rather are built upon it, such as the necessary skills and knowledge to prepare the student to enter the realm of practical life. The first thing that the student is taught are those sciences that are necessary to interact with the environment he lives in such as mathematics and the general sciences about the tools and machinery used such as electronic and electrical equipment, and domestic tools. And in the same manner the principles and rules of traffic in the roads and streets, and the teaching of these subjects would take into account the environment in which the students live, such as if it was industrial, agricultural or trade, and if it was mountainous, desert or a plain, and whether it was hot or cold. The goal in teaching these subjects until the age of ten is to enable the student to interact with the things around them, and to utilise them according to their age and needs.
After the age of ten, they start to be taught the branches of mathematics in stages, and similarly the other sciences such as physics, chemistry and biology, and beneficial sports such as swimming, jumping and shooting at targets. After puberty they are taught military skills under the supervision of the army, and then they can continue in the higher education institutions and universities to learn beneficial knowledge from the sciences to the extent necessary.