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دفعہ نمبر 125: ضروریات کی اطمینان کی ضمانت

خلافت ریاست, نبوی طریقہ کار وسلم خلافت, خلافت ریاست کے دستور, دفعہ نمبر 125: تمام افراد کی فردًافردًا تمام بنیادی ضروریات کو مکمل طور پر پورا کرنے کی ضمانت دینا لازمی ہے، اس طرح ہر فرد کو یہ ضمانت بھی دی جائے گی کہ ہر فرد ممکن حد تک اعلیٰ معیار زندگی کی ضروریات حاصل کرنے کے قابل ہو سکے ۔

 

 

Article 125: It is obligatory to guarantee that all the basic needs are met for everyone, and are completely met on an individual basis, and to guarantee that every individual is facilitated to satisfy the extra needs (non-essential needs) to the highest level possible.

This article has two halves: firstly, guaranteeing that the basis needs are satisfied and secondly, facilitation of the satisfaction of the luxurious needs.

The first half has several evidences for it, since the Legislator (swt) encouraged earning, seeking provision and effort, and made the effort to earn provisions a duty; Allah (swt) said:

{ فَامْشُوا فِي مَنَاكِبِهَا وَكُلُوا مِنْ رِزْقِهِ وَإِلَيْهِ النُّشُورُ (15)}

So walk among its slopes and eat of His provision.” (TMQ 67:15)and:

{فَإِذَا قُضِيَتِ الصَّلَاةُ فَانْتَشِرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَابْتَغُوا مِنْ فَضْلِ اللَّهِ وَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ}

And when the prayer has been concluded, disperse within the land and seek from the bounty of Allah.” (TMQ 62:10). The Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:

«كَفَى بِالْمَرْءِ إِثْماً أَنْ يُضَيِّعَ مَنْ يَقُوتُ»

It is sufficient sin for a man that he neglects him whom he maintains.” (reported by Abu Dawud with an chain that Al-Nawawi authenticated from ‘Abd Allah b. ‘Amru b. Al-‘As). This is the origin in guaranteeing the person’s satisfaction of all their basic needs through his earning. So Allah (swt) made work a duty upon the needy male who is capable in order for him to satisfy his needs. This means that work is compulsory on this capable person and if he does not undertake it he would be punished as is the case with every duty. As for women, and those men who are incapable of work, it is a duty to provide them with maintenance and this is a binding right for them, and the State is bound to provide it. Maintenance of the wife is a duty upon the husband; the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:

«وَلَهُنَّ عَلَيْكُمْ رِزْقُهُنَّ وَكِسْوَتُهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ»

Upon you is their provision and their clothing according to what is acceptable”. Maintenance for the children is a duty upon their father; Allah (swt) said:

{وَعَلَى الْمَوْلُودِ لَهُ رِزْقُهُنَّ وَكِسْوَتُهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ}

Upon the father is the mothers' provision and their clothing according to what is acceptable.(TMQ 2:233), and the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said to Hind:

«خُذِيْ مَا يَكْفِيكِ وَوَلَدَكِ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ»

Take whatever is sufficient for you and your child according to what is acceptable.” after she had complained that Abu Sufyan was a miserly man. Maintenance for the inheritor; Allah (swt) said:

{وَعَلَى الْوَارِثِ مِثْلُ ذَلِكَ}

An heir shall be chargeable in the same way.(TMQ 2:233) after His (swt) words:

{وَعَلَى الْمَوْلُودِ لَهُ رِزْقُهُنَّ وَكِسْوَتُهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ}

Upon the father is the mothers' provision and their clothing according to what is acceptable.(TMQ 2:233), so the Shari’ah obligated the maintenance of the female without restriction upon the inheritor, since it did not make seeking an earning a duty upon her, and obligated upon him the maintenance for the incapable males, if they were poor.

In the absence of anyone who was obligated to pay maintenance, or if they were present but unable to pay the maintenance, the Shari’ah obligated this maintenance upon the Bayt Al-Mal, in other words, upon the State. It is narrated that Abu Hurayrah said: The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:

«مَنْ تَرَكَ مَالاً فَلِوَرَثَتِهِ، وَمَنْ تَرَكَ كَلاًّ فَإِلَيْنَا»

“If somebody dies (among the Muslims) leaving some property, the property will go to his heirs; and if he leaves orphans (dependents), we will take care of them.” (agreed upon from Abu Hurayrah), and the kall is the weak who has no father or son. In another chain of the narration it is mentioned:

«مَنْ تَرَكَ مَالاً فَلِأَهْلِهِ وَمَنْ تَرَكَ دَيْنًا أَوْ ضَيَاعًا فَإِلَيَّ وَعَلَيَّ»

If anyone leaves property, it goes to his heir and if anyone leaves debt and dependants, let the matter come to me and I shall be responsible,” (reported by Muslim from Jabir), and the Daya’an is in other words, the children; it is mentioned in Al-Muhit dictionary: “Al-Diya’ is also the children”. So through these evidences the Shari’ah has guaranteed the fulfilment of the basic needs of the poor if they were female, or a male who was not capable of earning or if his earnings were not enough.

The incapable according to the Shari’ah is either the one literally unable to work, or the one who is incapable from the view of the law, meaning the one who is unable to find work through which he could gain his earning. Both of these are considered incapable.

Through these evidences the Shari’ah guaranteed them the fulfilment of all of their basic needs by maintenance, for the female without restriction, and for those men who are either literally or legally incapable, and this is initially upon the husband and any inheritor, and if they were not found or were incapable then upon the Bayt Al-Mal, in other words, the State.

In order for the Shari’ah to guarantee that the Bayt Al-Mal could carry out this maintenance, special concern is given to specific income, and so the Bayt Al-Mal has a section for the Zakah for the poor:

{ إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقَاتُ لِلْفُقَرَاءِ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ} [التوبة 60] إلى أن يقول: {وَاِبْنِ السَّبِيلِ}

Zakah expenditures are only for the poor and for the needy.” until the words:And for the [stranded] traveller.” (TMQ 9:60). If the Zakah is not sufficient, then the maintenance must be paid from other income to the Bayt Al-Mal due to the words of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم :

«وَمَنْ تَرَكَ دَيْنًا أَوْ ضَيَاعًا فَإِلَيَّ وَعَلَيَّ»

If anyone leaves debt and dependants, let the matter come to me and I shall be responsible” (reported by Muslim from Jabir), in other words, upon the State, and due to his words:

«الإِمَامُ رَاعٍ وَمَسْؤُولٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ»

The Imam (ruler) is a guardian and he is responsible for his subjects” (reported by Al-Bukhari from Abdullah Bin Umar),and amongst the most important responsibilities to his subjects is to guarantee the fulfilment of their basic needs. Therefore, their maintenance is provided from the income of the Bayt Al-Mal, since it is from the State responsibilities to distribute the maintenance to the poor. If the confirmed income of the Bayt Al-Mal was not sufficient, taxes would be imposed upon the rich Muslims in accordance with what would be enough to provide this maintenance, and it would be taken from them by force in order to get it to the Bayt Al-Mal for the sake of this maintenance, since this is from the reasons that the Khalifah can impose taxes. This is because if the Zakah and the confirmed income of the Bayt Al-Mal is not sufficient to provide the maintenance, then it becomes a duty upon all of the Muslims; the Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:

«وَأَيُّمَا أَهْلُ عَرْصَةٍ أَصْبَحَ فِيهِمْ امْرُؤٌ جَائِعٌ فَقَدْ بَرِئَتْ مِنْهُمْ ذِمَّةُ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى»

Whenever the people of an area wake up with a hungry person amongst them, then Allah’s covenant and protection to them is absolved.” (reported by Ahmad from Ibn Umar and authenticated by Ahmad Shakir), which is a report that implies a request to feed the hungry, and is connected to a blame, and so the request is definite, which therefore indicates that it is obligatory upon them. Therefore, the Khalifah can impose taxes upon who is capable of them, and take it from them even by force if necessary, since he is executing a duty.

This is all evidence that the Shari’ah obligated guaranteeing the satisfaction of all the basic needs for all the individuals, on an individual basis, and specified the income which guarantees the undertaking of this fulfilment, and guarantees its undertaking and continuation of it.

This is from the angle of guaranteeing the fulfilment for all of the individuals, on an individual basis. As for the angle that the fulfilment is of all the basic needs, the reality of life for the individual is that the basic needs are food, clothing and shelter, and the Shari’ah evidences which came guaranteed maintenance, and maintenance is food, clothing and shelter. Above and beyond that there are evidences that indicate that these three (food, clothing, and shelter) are the basic needs, and anything else is surplus and extra.

As for the evidences that maintenance is food, clothing and shelter, Allah (swt) said:

{وَعَلَى الْمَوْلُودِ لَهُ رِزْقُهُنَّ وَكِسْوَتُهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوف}ِ [البقرة 233] ويقول: {أَسْكِنُوهُنَّ مِنْ حَيْثُ سَكَنْتُمْ مِنْ وُجْدِكُمْ } [الطلاق 6]، ويقول: { مِنْ أَوْسَطِ مَا تُطْعِمُونَ أَهْلِيكُمْ }

Upon the father is the mothers' provision and their clothing according to what is acceptable.  (TMQ 2:233) and said: “Lodge them [in a section] of where you dwell out of your means.” (TMQ 65:6)and said: “From the average of that which you feed your [own] families.(TMQ 5:89), and so Allah (swt) clarified that food, clothing and shelter is maintenance. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said about women, in other words, wives:

«أَلا وَحَقُّهُنَّ عَلَيْكُمْ أَنْ تُحْسِنُوا إِلَيْهِنَّ فِي كِسْوَتِهِنَّ وَطَعَامِهِنَّ»

And their right over you is that you provide for them and dress them with what is good” (reported and authenticated by Al-Tirmidhi fromAmrf b. Al-Ahwas). In another narration he صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:

«وَلَهُنَّ عَلَيْكُمْ رِزْقُهُنَّ وَكِسْوَتُهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ»

And their right over you is to provide for them and cloth them with what is acceptable.” (reported by Muslim from Jabir). These are evidences that the maintenance is food, clothing and shelter, and that these are the basic needs. Uthman bin 'Affan narrated that the Prophet (s.a.w) said: "There is no right for the son of Adam in other than these things: A house which he lives in, a garment which covers his nakedness, and Jilf (a piece of bread) and water." (Hasan)

As for the evidences that food, clothing and shelter are the basic needs and anything else is extra, it is narrated from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم that he said:

«كُلُّ شَيْءٍ سِوَى ظِلِّ بَيْتٍ، وَجِلْفِ الْخُبْزِ، وَثَوْبٍ يُوَارِي عَوْرَتَهُ، وَالْمَاءِ، فَمَا فَضَلَ عَنْ هَذَا فَلَيْسَ لابْنِ آدَمَ فِيهِ حَقٌّ»

There is no right for the son Adam in other than these things: a house to live in, a piece of bread, a garment which covers his nakedness (‘Awrah), and water.”. And it is narrated with a different wording:

«لَيْسَ لابْنِ آدَمَ حَقٌّ فِي سِوَى هَذِهِ الْخِصَالِ: بَيْتٌ يَسْكُنُهُ، وَثَوْبٌ يُوَارِي عَوْرَتَهُ، وَجِلْفُ الْخُبْزِ وَالْمَاءِ»

The son of Adam has no right to anything except these: a house to live in, a clothing to cover his ‘Awrah (parts of body that must be covered in public), a chunk of bread, and water.” (reported by Al-Tirmidhi who said it is Hasan Sahih). The wording of the two narrations indicates that what has been mentioned in these narrations, which was food, clothing and shelter: “shade of a house”; “a house to live in”; “a piece of clothing to cover his ‘Awrah”; “a chunk of bread and water” is enough and sufficient. And his صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم words in the narration:

«فَمَا فَضَلَ عَنْ هَذَا فَلَيْسَ لابْنِ آدَمَ فِيهِ حَقٌّ»

and the son of Adam has no right in anything surplus to that” is absolutely clear that these three are the basic needs. Therefore, these two narrations relate that the basic needs are food, clothing and shelter, and anything extra is not basic. By fulfilling these three, the basic needs of individuals would have been satisfied.

As for the evidence that this satisfaction must be complete satisfaction, this is what was related in the evidences when it mentioned that this fulfilment must be reasonable (Bilma’ruf), and be of a sufficient amount, since Allah (swt) said: “on a reasonable basis (Bilma’ruf)” in His (swt) words:

{وَعَلَى الْمَوْلُودِ لَهُ رِزْقُهُنَّ وَكِسْوَتُهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ}

Upon the father is the mothers' provision and their clothing according to what is acceptable.(TMQ 2:233), and the Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said: “reasonable (Bilma’ruf)” in his words:

«وَلَهُنَّ عَلَيْكُمْ رِزْقُهُنَّ وَكِسْوَتُهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ»

And their right over you is to provide for them and cloth them with what is acceptable”. And the meaning of what is reasonable (Bilma’ruf), is in other words, what is acceptable or reasonable between people. And he صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said: “whatever is sufficient” in his words to Hind:

«خُذِي مَا يَكْفِيكِ وَوَلَدَكِ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ»

Take whatever is sufficient for you and your child that is acceptable (Bilma’ruf)” (agreed upon from the narration of Aisha(ra)), and so it mentions that it should be a sufficient amount. This indicates that the satisfaction should be complete, or in other words, all of the basic needs should be satisfied according to what is reasonable amongst the people. So sufficiency is a condition, in other words, until they are satisfied by food, covered in clothes, and have accommodation. Along with sufficiency, it is a condition that this sufficiency is met by what is reasonable, in other words, not simply sufficient by the lowest criteria, but rather sufficient by what is reasonable in that country which they live, and the people that they live amongst. Accordingly it is confirmed that the satisfaction must be complete, and all of this is the evidence for the first half of the article.

Additionally, the Shari’ah evidences did not obligate meeting the basic needs of the individuals person by person alone; rather they also obligated fulfilling the basic needs of the Ummah by ensuring security, medical care and education for the citizens.

Security is one of the primary obligations of the State, since it spreads security and safety for its citizens, to the point that the State loses its entity if it is not able to provide it. Accordingly it is a condition in Dar Al-Islam that the Islamic State is capable of preserving its security with its own powers, and this is why when the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم informed the Muslims about the abode of their emigration, the first thing he mentioned was security. He صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said to his companions in Makkah according to what Ibn Ishaq reported in his Sirah:

«إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ جَعَلَ لَكُمْ إِخْوَاناً وَدَاراً تَأْمَنُونَ بِهَا»

Allah made fellow brothers for you and a settlement that you feel safe in”, and similarly when the Ansar met the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم and his companion Abu Bakr (ra), the first thing they said to them as reported by Ahmad with an authentic chain from Anas:

«فَاسْتَقْبَلَهُمَا زُهَاءُ خَمْسِمائةٍ مِنَ الأَنْصَارِ حتى انْتَهَوْا إِلَيْهِمَا. فقالت الأنصارُ: انْطَلِقَا آمِنَيْنِ مُطَاعَيْنِ»

They were received by about five hundreds of Ansar who said: Set off, safe and obeyed”,and so the spreading of safety for the citizens is from the essential duties of the State.

Health and medical care are from the obligations of the State such that they must be readily available for the citizens, from the angle of clinics and hospitals, and public utilities used for treatment by the Muslims. So, medical treatment from this angle is part of the interests and public utilities. The interests and public utilities must be undertaken by the State since they are from the issues that the State is responsible over, in accordance with the words of the Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم :

«الإِمَامُ رَاعٍ وَهُوَ وَمَسْؤُولٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ»

The Imam (ruler) is a guardian, and responsible (and will be questioned) for his subjects.” (reported by Al-Bukhari from Abdullah Bin Umar). This text is general regarding the responsibility of the State for health and medical care since they are part of the obligatory responsibilities of the State.  

There are evidences specific to health and medical care: Muslim reported from Jabir who said:

«بَعَثَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم إِلَى أُبَيِّ بْنِ كَعْبٍ طَبِيبًا فَقَطَعَ مِنْهُ عِرْقًا ثُمَّ كَوَاهُ عَلَيْهِ»

Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) sent a physician to Ubay b. Ka'b. He cut the vein and then cauterised it”. And Al-Hakim narrated in Al-Mustadrak from Zayd b. Aslam from his father who said:

«مَرِضْتُ فِي زَمَانِ عُمَرَ بِنَ الْخَطَّابِ مَرَضاً شَدِيداً فَدَعَا لِي عُمَرُ طَبِيباً فَحَمَانِي حَتَّى كُنْتُ أَمُصُّ النَّوَاةَ مِنْ شِدَّةِ الْحِمْيَةِ»

I fell severely sick at the time of Umar b. Al-Khattab who called a physician for me, he warmed me up to the extent I would suck on date pits due to the intense heat”.

In his capacity as a ruler, the Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم sent a doctor to Ubay, and Umar (ra), the second righteous Khalifah,called a doctor for Aslam to treat him, which are two evidences that health and medical care are from the essential needs of the citizens that the State must make sure are readily available for whoever needs them.

As for the evidence of education (being a basic need), the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم made ransom of the disbelieving prisoners that they should teach ten of the Muslim children. Ransom is part of the war booty, which is the property of the Muslims, and the consensus of the companions on setting aside a specific amount from the treasury (Bayt Al-Mal) as salary for teachers.

Accordingly, it is obligatory upon the State to provide security, medical care and education for all of the citizens, and to make that part of the treasury issues, without any difference made between the Muslims and Dhimmi, or rich and poor.

The importance of the essential needs for the individual and Ummah is explained by the Messenger of Allah in that the provision of these needs is like possessing the world in its entirety, an allusion expressing the importance of these needs. Al-Tirmidhi reported from Salamah b. ‘Ubayd Allah b. Mihsan Al-Ansari from his father, who was a companion, said: The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:

«مَنْ أَصْبَحَ مِنْكُمْ آمِنًا فِي سِرْبِهِ، مُعَافًى فِي جَسَدِهِ، عِنْدَهُ قُوتُ يَوْمِهِ، فَكَأَنَّمَا حِيزَتْ لَهُ الدُّنْيَا»

Whoever begins his day feeling family security and good health; and possessing provision for his day is as though he possesed the world” (Abu ‘Isa said this narration is Hasan Gharib). And similarly Ibn Maja reported it with a Hasan chain, and Abu Nu‘aym has a similar report in Al-Hilyah from Abu ’l Darda’, but with the extra part ‘all of it’, in other words:

«حِيزَتْ لَهُ الدُّنْيَا بِحَذَافِيرِهَا»

as though he possessed the whole world”.

These evidences all indicate the obligation of guaranteeing the fulfilment of all the basic needs for all of the citizens individually, in terms of food, clothing and shelter, and in the same manner indicates the necessity of the wide provision of the essential services for the Ummah from security, health and education.

As for the second half from the article, facilitating the fulfilment of the luxurious needs (non-essential needs), then the obligation of work upon the capable male is an evidence for the facilitation of the fulfilment of the luxurious needs in the same manner as the basic needs. This is because the encouragement for earning is not restricted to the fulfilment of the basic needs, so this generality is evidence that the Shari’ah enables the individual to fulfil their non-essential needs from their earnings. Additionally, the permission to enjoy the good/lawful things is also an evidence for the facilitation of the fulfilment of the luxurious needs:

Allah (swt) says:

{كُلُوا مِنْ طَيِّبَاتِ مَا رَزَقْنَاكُمْ} [البقرة 57] وقال: {قُلْ مَنْ حَرَّمَ زِينَةَ اللَّهِ الَّتِي أَخْرَجَ لِعِبَادِهِ وَالطَّيِّبَاتِ مِنَ الرِّزْقِ} [الأعراف 32]، وقال:{ وَلَا يَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ يَبْخَلُونَ بِمَا آَتَاهُمُ اللَّهُ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ هُوَ خَيْرًا لَهُمْ بَلْ هُوَ شَرٌّ لَهُمْ سَيُطَوَّقُونَ مَا بَخِلُوا بِهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ} [آل عمران 180]، وقـــال: {يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا لَا تُحَرِّمُوا طَيِّبَاتِ مَا أَحَلَّ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ} [المائدة 87]، وقــال: {لِيُنْفِقْ ذُو سَعَةٍ مِنْ سَعَتِهِ} [الطلاق 7] وقال: {وَلَا تَنْسَ نَصِيبَكَ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا }

Eat from the good things with which We have provided you.(TMQ 2:57);Say, who has forbidden the adornment of Allah which He has produced for His servants and the good [lawful] things of provision?(TMQ 7:32); “And let not those who [greedily] withhold what Allah has given them of His bounty ever think that it is better for them. Rather, it is worse for them. Their necks will be encircled by what they withheld on the Day of Resurrection.” (TMQ 3:180); “O you who have believed, do not prohibit the good things which Allah has made lawful to you.” (TMQ 5:87); : “Let a man of wealth spend from his wealth.” (TMQ 65:7); “And [yet], do not forget your share of worldy affairs.(TMQ 28:77).

All of this is evidence that the Shari’ah permitted every individual to fulfil his non-essential needs, so by this permission it enabled him to satisfy himself. On top of that is what has been related to the prohibition of miserliness, and rebuke of whoever prohibits the enjoyment of lawful things, which clearly indicates this enablement.

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دفعہ نمبر 1: اسلامی عقیدہ ہی ریا ست کی بنیا د ہے یعنی ریا ست کے وجود ، اس کی سا خت (ڈھانچہ)، اس کے محا سبے اور اس سے متعلق کسی بھی چیز کی بنیا د اسلامی عقیدہ ہی ہو گا۔ ساتھ ہی یہ عقیدہ دستور اور قوانین کے لیے ایسی اسا س ہو گا کہ ان دو نوں سے متعلق کسی بھی چیز کی اُس وقت تک اجازت نہیں ہو گی جب تک وہ اسلامی عقیدہ سے اخذ شدہ نہ ہو۔
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دفعہ نمبر 14:…

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دفعہ نمبر 5:…

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دفعہ نمبر 7:…

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دفعہ نمبر 100:…

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دفعہ نمبر 47:…

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