Статья 162: Всем гражданам государства разрешается открывать и развивать научные лаборатории, связанные с разработкой во всех сферах жизнедеятельности человека. Государство также должно открывать такие лаборатории.
Article 162: All individual subjects of the State have the right to establish scientific research laboratories connected to life issues, and the State must also establish such laboratories.
Scientific research is nothing more than knowledge which man can learn, and Allah (swt) permitted knowledge generally; He (swt) said:
((اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ)) (1))) [العلق] وقال: ((عَلَّمَ الْإِنْسَانَ مَا لَمْ يَعْلَمْ (5)))
“Recite in the name of your Lord who created -.” (TMQ 96:1) and: “Taught man that which he knew not.” (TMQ 96:5), and the Prophet said:
«مَنْ يُرِدْ اللَّهُ بِهِ خَيْرًا يُفَقِّهْهُ فِي الدِّينِ»
“When Allah wishes good for anyone, He bestows upon him the Fiqh of the (gives him knowledge of the Deen).” agreed upon from Mu’awiyah, and Al-Bukhari reported a narration Ta’liq (without the chain) but mentioned it decisively (that is – he considered it to be a narration):
«وَإِنَّمَا الْعِلْمُ بِالتَّعَلُّمِ»
“knowledge attainment is only by learning” and Al-Hafiz also said in Al-Fateh that the chain reaches back to the Prophet .
These evidences indicate the permissibility of knowledge from the angle of it being knowledge, since His (swt) word: “Read” is general encompassing reading of everything, and His (swt) words: “Taught man that which he knew not.” (TMQ 96:5) includes all knowledge. The words of the Messenger : “Indeed knowledge…” is the genus defined by Alif and Lam (the), so it is from the terms of generality. This all indicates that learning anything is permitted, and that any knowledge is permissible.
Accordingly, the generality of the evidences indicate the unrestricted permissibility of knowledge. Based upon this, any individual from the subjects of the State can seek knowledge, in other words, any knowledge, and to use the necessary means to arrive at scientific facts and truths, and so every individual has the right to initiate any research laboratories he wants, and to help whoever he pleases to establish laboratories.
These laboratories would be private property and would not be a part of public or State property. However, it is permitted for the State to possess such private property in its capacity as a semantic entity, just as any real person could own them. Its ownership of a laboratory would not make it the property of the State; rather it would remain private property, however it would be owned by the State and it would be part of the State’s property while it remains a type of private property. When the State undertakes the establishment of laboratories, it is only doing it from the angle of managing the affairs of the subjects, and establishing the obligation that Allah (swt) put upon it which is to produce knowledge, part of which would include establishing laboratories.