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Constitution of the Caliphate State for Android

Constitution of the Caliphate State / Governors

Article 60: Examination of governors and their actions

The Constitution of the Caliphate State, Article 60: The Khalifah must examine the actions of the governors and continually assess their performance strictly. He must deputise people to monitor their situations, investigate them, and periodically gather all or some of them, and listen to the complaints of the subjects regarding them.

It is confirmed that the Prophet  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم used to test the governors when he appointed them as he did with Mu’adh and Abu Musa, and explained to them how they should proceed as he did with Amr b. Hazm in his message famous amongst the people of knowledge as mentioned by Ibn ’Asakir in Tarikh Damascus and Al-Hafiz said in Al-Isaba

«... واسـتعمل النبي  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم عمرو بن حزم على نجـران ... »

“…and the Prophet  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم appointed Amr Bin Hazam over Najran…” and it is reported from him that the message he  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم wrote to him was regarding the obligations and blood money and other issues, as narrated by Abu Dawud and Al-Nasa’i, Ibn Hibban and Al-Darimi and others.

Likewise he  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم would make them aware of some important issues as he did with Abaan Bin Said when he appointed him over Bahrain as has been mentioned in Al-Tabaqatof Ibn Sa’d from Al-Waqidi when it was said to him

«اسْـتَـوْصِ بَعَـبْـدِ قَـيْسٍ خَيْراً، وَأَكْرِمْ سَرَاتَهِمْ»

“Take good care of ’Abd Qays and honour their leaders”. In the same way, it is confirmed that he  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم used to account the governors, investigate their circumstances and listen to what was narrated to him regarding their news. He  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم also used to account the governors over the taxation and expenditures; it is narrated by Abu Hamid Al-Sa’idi

«اسْـتَعْمَلَ النَّبِيُّ  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم رَجُلاً مِنْ بَنِي أَسْدٍ يُقَالُ لَهُ ابْنُ اللُّتَبِيَّةِ عَلَى صَـدَقَـةٍ فَلَمَّا قَـدِمَ قَـالَ هَـذَا لَكُمْ وَهَـذَا أُهْدِيَ لِي فَقَامَ النَّبِيُّ  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم عَلَى الْمِنْـبَرِ قَالَ سُفْيَانُ أَيْضًا فَصَعِدَ الْمِنْـبَرَ فَحَمِدَ اللَّهَ وَأَثْنَى عَلَيْهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ مَا بَالُ الْعَامِلِ نَـبْـعَـثُـهُ فَيَأْتِي يَقُولُ هَذَا لَكَ وَهَذَا لِي فَهَلاَّ جَلَسَ فِي بَيْتِ أَبِيهِ وَأُمِّهِ فَيَـنْـظُـرُ أَيُهْدَى لَهُ أَمْ لاَ وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لاَ يَأْتِي بِشَيْءٍ إِلاَّ جَاءَ بِهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يَحْمِلُهُ عَلَى رَقَـبَـتِـهِ إِنْ كَانَ بَعِيرًا لَهُ رُغَاءٌ أَوْ بَقَرَةً لَهَا خُوَارٌ أَوْ شَاةً تَيْعَرُ ثُمَّ رَفَعَ يَدَيْهِ حَتَّى رَأَيْنَا عُفْرَتَيْ إِبْطَيْهِ أَلاَ هَلْ بَلَّغْتُ ثَلاَثاً»

The Prophet  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم employed a man from the tribe of Al-Azd named Ibn Lutbiyyah as collector of Zakat. When the employee returned (with the collections) he said: " O Prophet  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم ! This is for you and this is mine because it was presented to me as gift." Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم rose to the pulpit and praised Allah and extolled Him. Then he said, "I employ a man to do a job and he comes and says: 'This is for you and this has been presented to me as gift'? Why did he not remain in the house of his father or the house of his mother and see whether gifts will be given to him or not? By Allah in Whose Hand is the life of Muhammad, if any one of you took anything wrongfully, he will bring it on the Day of Resurrection, carrying it on (his back), I will not recognize anyone of you, on the Day of Resurrection with a grunting camel, or a bellowing cow, or a bleating ewe." Then he raised his hands till we could see the whiteness of his armpits. Then he said thrice, ''O Allah ! have I conveyed (Your Commandments(agreed upon narration).

Umar (ra) used to be severe in his monitoring of the governors and appointed Muhammad Bin Maslamah (ra) to examine their circumstances and investigate them. He would gather the governors in the pilgrimage season in order to look into what they had done, listen to the complaints of the subjects regarding them and to remind them of the affairs of the governorship and establish their circumstances. It is narrated from Umar (ra) that one day he said to those around him

"أرأيتم إذا استعملت عليكم خير من أعلم ثم أمرته بالعدل، أكنت قضيت الذي علي قالوا: نعم، قال: لا، حتى أنظر في عمله، أعمل بما أمرته به أم لا"

“Do you think if I appointed over you the best whom I know, and then commanded him to be just, that have I completed what was upon me?” They replied, yes. He said “No, until I looked into his actions – did he act according to what I commanded him to or not” (reported from Al-Bayhaqi in Al-Sunan and Al-Shi’ab from Tawus).Umar (ra) used to strictly account his governors and ’Ummal, and his severity in accounting them would lead to him sometimes removing one of them due to a doubt for which there was no definite evidence and he used to remove them due to suspicion which did not reach the level of doubt. He was once asked about that and so said

"هان شيء أصلح به قوماً أن أبدلهم أميراً مكان أمير"

“The simplest thing I do to make things right for people is to relplce a leader (Amir) they have by another” (reported by Abu Shabah in Al-Tarikh Al-Madinah, and by Ibn Sa’d in Al-Tabaqat from Al-Hasan).

However, even with his strictness over them he used to allow them freedom of conduct, would protect their standing in government, listen to them and be attentive to their proofs. If the proof convinced him, he would not hide his conviction of it and his praise of the ’Amil. One day, it reached him that his ’Amil over Hims, ’Umayr b. Sa’d, said while upon the pulpit,

"لا يزال الإسلام منيعاً ما اشـتـد السلطان. وليسـت شـدة السلطان قتلاً بالسـيـف أو ضرباً بالسوط، ولكن قضاءً بالحق وأخذاً بالعدل"

“Islam will remain strong as long as the authority is rigorously strong. But strength in authority is not killking by sword or striking by whip, but it is judging according to Truth and applying justice” as mentioned by Ibn Sa’d in Al-Tabaqat from Said b. Suwayd. So Umar (ra) said regarding him,

"وددت لو أن لي رجلاً مثل عمير بن سعد أستعين به على أعمال المسلمين"

“I wish I had a man like ’Umayr Bin Sa’d who I could rely upon in Muslims’ matters”.

Some articles of the Constitution

The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 33: The temporary Ameer

Article 33: A temporary leader is appointed to take charge of the affairs of the Muslims, and to prepare for the election of the new Caliph (Khalifah) after the vacation of the position of the Caliphate (Khilafah) according to the following process: When the previous Caliph (Khalifah) feels that his life is coming to an end, or is committed to resigning, he has the right to appoint the temporary… more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 167: The currency of the State is gold and silver

Article 167: The currency of the State is to be restricted to gold and silver, whether minted or not. No other form of currency for the State is permitted. The State can issue something as a substitute for gold or silver provided that the Bayt Al-Mal has the equivalent amount of gold and silver to cover the issued coinage. Thus, the State may issue coinage in its name from brass, bronze or paper… more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 104: Permission for media

Article 104: The media owned by any citizen of the State does not require a permit; rather they are simply required to inform the media office, such that the office knows about the media means that are being established. The owner and the editors of any media means are responsible for every article they publish and are accounted for anything which contradicts the Shari’ah in the same manner as… more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 49: Department of executive assistant

Article 49: The Khalifah appoints assistants for implementation and their work is administrative. They are not rulers and their department is the institution that executes what the Khalifah issues in both of the internal and foreign affairs authorities and submits what comes to him from these authorities. The department is the intermediary between the Khalifah and others, conveying to and from… more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 144: The Jizya

Article 144:Jizya is collected from non-Muslims (people of Dhimma). It is to be taken from the adult men if they are capable of paying it, and it is not taken from women or children. more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 56: Powers of provincial assembly

Article 56: Every province has an assembly elected from its people and championed by the governor. The assembly has the authority to participate in expressing opinions on administrative matters and not on ruling; and this would be for two objectives: Firstly - providing the necessary information about the situation of the governorate and its needs to the governor and to express their opinion… more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 171:The education policy

Article 171:The education policy is to form the Islamic mentality and disposition. Therefore, all subjects in the curriculum must be chosen on this basis. more

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