Constitution of the Caliphate State / Administrative System, Treasury, Media
- Category: dministrative System, Treasury, Media §96-104
Article 103: The institution of the Media Office is responsible for drawing up and executing the political media strategy for the State in order to support the interests of Islam and the Muslims. Internally, it works to build an Islamic society that is strong and cohesive, and it refutes that which is malicious while confirming that which is good. In external affairs it is to promote Islam during peace and war, in a manner that explains the greatness of Islam, its justice and the strength of its army, and expose the corruption and oppression of manmade system and the weakness of its army.
Media is one of the important matters for the call to Islam (Da’wah) and the State. It is not one of the interests of the people that are under the authority of the department of peoples’ affairs. Rather, it is directly connected to the Khalifah as an independent institution, just like any of the institutions of the State.
The presence of a distinguished media policy that presents Islam strongly and effectively would provoke the minds of the people to turn toward Islam, to study it and to think about it. It also facilitates the annexation of Islamic lands to the Khilafah State. Furthermore, there are many issues of media which are closely related to the State and they cannot be published without the Khalifah's instruction. This is manifested in the military matters and related issues, such as the movement of the armies, and the news of victory and defeat and the military industries. This type of news must be linked directly to the Imam so he can decide which news has to be concealed and which news must be announced and advertised.
The evidence for this is the Book and the Sunnah.
With regards to the Book, His (swt) saying:
((وَإِذَا جَاءَهُمْ أَمْرٌ مِنَ الْأَمْنِ أَوِ الْخَوْفِ أَذَاعُوا بِهِ وَلَوْ رَدُّوهُ إِلَى الرَّسُولِ وَإِلَى أُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْهُمْ لَعَلِمَهُ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَنْبِطُونَهُ مِنْهُمْ))
“And when there comes to them information about [public] security or fear, they spread it around. But if they had referred it back to the Messenger or to those of authority among them, then the ones who [can] draw correct conclusions from it would have known about it.” (TMQ 4:83) - the subject of the verse is the news.
With regards to the Sunnah it is the narration of Ibn ‘Abbas about the conquest of Makkah as is reported by Al-Hakim in Al-Mustadrak, described as authentic based on the condition of Muslim, and Al-Dhahabi confirmed that. The narration mentions:
«وَقَدْ عَمِيَتِ الأَخْـبَارُ عَلَى قُرَيْشٍ، فَلاَ يَأْتِيهِمْ خَبَرُ رَسُولِ اللهِ وَلاَ يَدْرُونَ مَا هُوَ صَانِعٌ»
“The news was obscured from Quraysh; so the news of the Messenger of Allah would not reach them, and nor would they know what he is planning regarding them”. There is also the Mursal (narration not directly connected to the Messenger rather the name of a companion is missing) of Abu Salamah as reported by Ibn Abi Shaybah, which mentions: “Then the Prophet said to 'Aisha:
جَهِّزِينِي وَلاَ تُعْلِمِي بِذَلِكَ أَحَداً، ... ثُمَّ أَمَرَ بِالطُّرُقِ فَحُبِسَتْ، فَعَمَّى عَلَى أَهْلِ مَكَّةَ لاَ يَأْتِيهِمْ خَبَرٌ
‘Prepare me, and do not tell anyone about it…and then he commanded that the highways be obstructed, and so the people of Makkah were kept in the dark and no news reached them.’”
There is also the narration of Ka’b which is agreed upon regarding the Battle of Tabuk (the expedition of Hardship) which says:
«وَلَمْ يَكُنْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ يُرِيدُ غَزْوَةً إِلا وَرَّى بِغَيْرِهَا، حَتَّى كَانَتْ تِلْكَ الْغَزْوَةُ غَزَاهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ فِي حَرٍّ شَدِيدٍ، وَاسْـتَقْبَلَ سَفَرًا بَعِيدًا وَمَفَازًا وَعَدُوًّا كَثِيرًا، فَجَلَّى لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ أَمْرَهُمْ لِيَتَأَهَّـبُوا أُهْـبَةَ غَزْوِهِمْ، فَأَخْـبَرَهُمْ بِوَجْهِهِ الَّذِي يُرِيدُ»
“The Messenger of Allah never intended an expedition without alluding to something else, until he made during a very hot weather, a distant place, a desert and a huge enemy. So, he explained to the Muslims their matter to be ready for their raid, and he thus informed them of the destination he wants.”
There is also the narration of Anas as reported by Al-Bukhari
«أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ نَعَى زَيْدًا وَجَعْفَرًا وَابْنَ رَوَاحَةَ لِلنَّاسِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَأْتِيَهُمْ خَبَرُهُمْ فَقَالَ: أَخَذَ الرَّايَةَ زَيْدٌ فَأُصِيبَ، ثُمَّ أَخَذَ جَعْفَرٌ فَأُصِيبَ، ثُمَّ أَخَذَ ابْنُ رَوَاحَةَ فَأُصِيبَ، وَعَيْـنَاهُ تَذْرِفَانِ، حَتَّى أَخَذَ سَيْفٌ مِنْ سُيُوفِ اللَّهِ حَـتَّى فَتَحَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ»
“The Prophet announced the death of Zayd, Ja'far and Ibn Ruwaha before the news of their death reached him. He said: Zayd took the flag but he was killed, then Ja'far took it and he was killed, then Ibn Ruwahah took it and he was killed; he said that while he was crying. Lastly one of the swords of Allah took it till Allah granted them victory.”
Some of the applications of this rule at the time of the Righteous Khulafaa’ is that which is narrated by Ibn Al-Mubarak in the subject of Jihad; Al-Hakim reported in Al-Mustadrak - and he considered it authentic based on the condition of Muslim, which Al-Dhahabi confirmed - from Zayd b. Aslam from his father from Umar b. Al-Khattab (ra) “that he was informed that ‘Abu ‘Ubaydah was surrounded and the enemy rallied against him. So, Umar wrote to him, ‘Peace is upon you. After that, there is not any difficulty that befalls a believer except Allah made for him a way out of it; and never a hardship would defeat two eases.’
((يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا اصْبِرُوا وَصَابِرُوا وَرَابِطُوا وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ (200)))
“O you who have believed, persevere and endure and remain stationed and fear Allah that you may be successful.” (TMQ 3:200)He said: Abu ‘Ubaydah wrote to him, “Peace is upon you, after that Allah says in His Book:
] ((اعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا لَعِبٌ وَلَهْوٌ وَزِينَةٌ وَتَفَاخُرٌ بَيْنَكُمْ وَتَكَاثُرٌ فِي الْأَمْوَالِ وَالْأَوْلَادِ))
“Know that the life of this world is but amusement and diversion and adornment and boasting to one another and competition in increase of wealth and children .” (TMQ 57: 20).He said, then Umar went out holding his letter, sat on the pulpit and read it to the people of Madinah and said, “O people of Madinah! Abu ‘Ubaydah expresses to you that you should show interest in Jihad.”
There are other types of news which have no direct connection to the State, and do not require the direct opinion of the Khalifah, such as the daily news, the political, cultural, and scientific programmes, and the international affairs. Though these may interfere with the viewpoint of life in some parts, and with the view of the State towards international relations, but despite that the type of State control over them differs from the first type of news.
Accordingly the media institution must contain two main departments:
The first: Its task is related to news that has connection with the State, such as the military matters, the military industry and international relations, and so on.
The task of this department is the direct supervision of such news. So, such news is not broadcasted in the state media or the special sources of media except after their presentation to the institute of media.
The second: is related to other news; and its supervision of them is not direct. Both state and private media do not need any permission for presenting such news.