nusr-khilafah-en

Constitution of the Caliphate State for Android

Constitution of the Caliphate State / Ruling & Administration

Article 49: Department of executive assistant

The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 49: The Khalifah appoints assistants for implementation and their work is administrative. They are not rulers and their department is the institution that executes what the Khalifah issues in both of the internal and foreign affairs authorities and submits what comes to him from these authorities. The department is the intermediary between the Khalifah and others, conveying to and from him in the following matters:

  • a.Relations with the people
  • b.International relations
  • c.The military
  • d.The institutions

The executive assistant is the ministerwhom the Khalifah appoints to be his assistant in the execution of matters, the following up and implementation of his orders. He is the intermediary between the Khalifah and the various State departments, the subjects and the foreign office. He conveys messages to and from the Khalifah. He is an assistant in executing orders and is not authorised over them or entrusted with them i.e. his role is one of execution and administrative and not ruling. His department is a tool used to execute what the Khalifah issues to the internal and foreign offices, ensuring submission to the Khalifah in all that comes to him through these offices. His department acts as an intermediary between the Khalifah and others, where it conveys to them on his behalf and conveys to him from them.

The executive assistant used to be called a secretary (Al-Katib) at the time of the Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم and the righteous Khulafaa’. Then he became known as the keeper of the Diwan of letters or correspondence. Later, it was decided that he is called the secretary of composition or the keeper of the Diwan of composition and then the jurists named him the executive assistant (Wazir Al-Tanfidh).

As for the actions regarding the four issues mentioned – the evidence is through examination of the evidences related to the Katib (Wazir Al-Tanfidh) at the time of the Messenger  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم and the actions of the righteous Khulafaa’ in front of the masses of companions:

  • The messages sent to the subjects directly. Such as:

-   His  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم message to the people of Najran. Abu ’Ubayd narrated in Al-Amwal from Abu Al-Malih Al-Huthali which mentioned at its end

«شَـهِـدَ بِذَلِكَ عُـثْـمَـانُ بْـنُ عَفَّانَ وَمُعَيْقِيبُ، وَكَتَبَ»

-   “’Uthman Bin ’Affan and Mu’ayqib witnessed it, and he wrote”. Abu Yusuf reported it in Al-Kharaj and mentioned that the Katib was Al-Mughaira, and then it mentioned the message of Umar (ra) with the Katib being Mu’ayqib, and then the message of ’Uthman (ra) to them with the Katib being his servant Hamran, and then the message from ’Ali (ra) with the Katib being ’Abdullah b. Abi Rafi’.

-   His  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم message to Tamim Al-Dari. Abu Yusuf mentioned in Al-Kharaj saying

«قَامَ تَمِيمٌ الدَّارِيُّ وَهُوَ تَمِيمُ بْنُ أَوْسٍ - رَجُلٌ مِنْ لَخْمٍ - فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، إِنَّ لِي جِيرَةً مِنَ الرُّومِ بِفِلَسْطِينَ، لَهُمْ قَرْيَةٌ يُقَالُ لَهَا حِبْرَى، وَأُخْرَى يُقَالُ لَهَا عَيْـنُونُ، وَإِنْ فَتَحَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكَ الشَّامَ فَهَبْهُمَا لِي، فَقَالَ: هُمَا لَكَ. قَالَ: فَاكْـتُبْ لِي بِذَلِكَ، فَكَتَبَ لَهُ: بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ، هَذَا كِتَابٌ مِنْ مُحَمَّدٍ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ لِِتَمِيمِ بْنِ أَوْسِ الدَّارِيِّ، أَنَّ لَهُ قَرْيَةَ حِبْرَى وَبَيْتَ عَيْـنُونَ قَرْيَتُهَا كُلُّهَا، وَسَهْلُهَا وَجَبَلُهَا وَمَاؤُهَا وَحَرْثُهَا وَأَنْبَاطُهَا وَبَقَرُهَا وَلِعَقِبِهِ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ، لاَ يُحَاقُّهُ فِيهَا أَحَدٌ، وَلاَ يُلْحِدُ عَلَيْهِمْ أَحَدٌ بِظُلْمٍ، فَمَنْ ظَلَمَ وَأَخَذَ مِنْهُمْ شَيْئاً فَإِنَّ عَلَيْهِ لَعْنَةَ اللَّهِ وَالمَلاَئِكَةِ وَالنَّاسِ أَجْمَعِينَ. وَكَتَبَ عَلِيٌ»

“Tamim Al-Dari (Tamim Bin Aws, a man from Lakhm) stood up and said: O Messenger of Allah, I have a neighbourhood from the Romans in Palestine – there is a village which is called Hibra, and another called Aynun. If Allah opens as-Sham to you, grant them to me as a gift. And so he  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said – They are yours. He said – write that for me, and so he wrote: In the name of Allah, this is a message from Muhammad the Messenger of Allah to Tamim Bin Aws Al-Dari, that he has all the houses of the two villages: Hibra and Aynun, and their plains, mountains, water, agriculture, plants and its cattle, and for who comes after him. No one should contest over it with them, and no one should incline to take it by force. Whoever oppresses and takes anything from it, then they will have the curses of Allah and the angels and all of the people. ’Ali was the one who wrote it”. When Abu Bakr (ra) took the leadership, he wrote them a message which mentioned In the name of Allah – this is a message from Abu Bakr the guarantor of the Messenger of Allah succeeded on the Earth, he wrote to the people of Dari, no one should spoil anything by their hand from the villages of Hibra and Aynun, and whoever heard and obeyed Allah, then do not spoil anything from them, and should build two entrances around them to prevent anyone who intended to do so from entering

  • International relations:

-   The Treaty of Hudaybiyah: Al-Bukhari narrated from Al-Miswar and Marwan regarding the treaty:

«فَدَعَا النَّبِيُّ  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم الكَاتِبَ ...»

-   “So the Prophet  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم called the Katib (writer)…”. Abu Yusuf also narrated in the book Al-Kharaj saying:

«وَحَدَّثَنِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْحَقَ وَالكَلْبِيُّ، زَادَ بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ فِي الحَدِيثِ، وَفِيهِ: وَقَالَ: اكْـتُـبُوا ...»

-   Muhammad Ibn Ishaq and Al-Kalbi informed me, some others added in the narration saying: He said: Write (plural), without mentioning the name of the writer. Ibn Kathir reported

«قَالَ ابْنُ إِسْحَقَ قَالَ الزُّهْرِيُّ ... ثُمَّ دَعَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم عَلِيَّ بْنَ أَبِي طَالِبَ رضي الله عنه فَقَالَ: اكْتُبْ ...»

-   Ibn Ishaq said Al-Zuhri said…then the Messenger of Allah called upon ’Ali Ibn Abi Talib and said: ‘Write (singular)…’”. Abu ’Ubayd narrated it in the book of Al-Amwal from Ibn ’Abbas, where he said:

«... فَقَالَ لِعَلِيٍّ: أُكْـتُبْ يَا عَلِيُّ ...»

-   “….and he said to ’Ali: ‘O ’Ali, write…’” and Al-Hakim narrated from Ibn ’Abbas, and Al-Dhahabi authenticated and approved it, saying:

«... اُكْـتُبْ يَا عَلِيُّ ...»

-   “…..O ’Ali, write…”.The text of this peace treaty is well known and does not need mentioning here.

  • The Military:

-   The letter of Abu Bakr (ra) to Khalid (ra), in which he commands him to travel to as-Sham. Abu Yusuf said in the book Al-Kharaj: Khalid wanted to take Al-Heerah as his centre. However, the letter of Abu Bakr came to him commanding him to travel to as-Sham as reinforcement for Abu ’Ubaydah and the Muslims…”

  • The institutions of the state other than the military

-   The letter of the Messenger  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم to Mu’adh regarding the tenth (Al-Ushr): Yahya Ibn Adam narrated in the book of Al-Kharaj from Al-Hasan, he said:

«كَتَبَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم إِلَى مُعَاذٍ بِالْيَمَنِ: فِيمَا سَقَتِ السَّمَاءُ أَوْ سُقِيَ غَيْلاً العُشْرُ، وَمَا سُقِيَ بِالغَرْبِ فَنِصْفُ العُشْرِ»

-   “The Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم wrote to Mu’adh in Yemen: “A tenth is payable on what is watered by rain or by sizable water; and a twentieth (have of a tenth) on what is watered by bucket.” Al-Sha’bi wrote the same narration. IbnAbu Shaybah has also narrated similar in his book about ruling.

The Khalifah can appoint writers (Kuttab) according to his needs; rather it could reach to the level of being an obligation if he could not fulfill the obligatory tasks without appointing them. The authors who wrote the history of the Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم mention that he had about twenty such writers.

Some articles of the Constitution

The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 145: Land tax

Article 145: Land tax is payable upon the Kharajiyyah land according to its capacity. Zakah is collected from the ‘Ushriyyah land according to the actual production. more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 86: Deputies of the Muhtasib

Article 86: The Muhtasib has the right to appoint deputies for him. They should fulfil the requirements of the Muhtasib, and he is allowed to assign them to different places. Those deputies would have the power to carry out the duties of the Hisbah in the areas to which they have been assigned, and in the cases for which they have been delegated. more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 159: Agricultural affairs and policy

Article 159: The State supervises agricultural affairs and its produce in accordance with the needs of the agricultural policy which is to achieve the potential of the land to its greatest level of production. more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 176: Relation of Arts and crafts to science or culture

Article 176: Arts and crafts may be related to science, such as commerce, navigation and agriculture. In such cases, they are studied without restriction or conditions. Sometimes, however, arts and crafts are connected to culture and influenced by a particular viewpoint of life, such as painting and sculpting. If this viewpoint of life contradicts the Islamic viewpoint of life, these arts and… more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 148: State budget

Article 148: The budget of the State has permanent chapters determined by Shari’ah rules. As for the sections of the budget, the amounts allocated for each section, and the issues of each sectioncovered by these amounts are left to the opinion of the Khalifah and his Ijtihad. more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 90: The Court of Madhalim removes any ruler or employee

Article 90: The Court of Injustice Acts (Madhalim) has the right to remove any ruler or civil servant in the State, in the same way that it has the right to remove the Khalifah, if the elimination of the Madhlamah required this removal. more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 115: Women in the state apparatus

Article 115: It is permitted for a woman to be appointed in civil service and positions in the judiciary apart from the Court of Injustices. She can elect members of the Ummah’s council, and be a member herself, and she can participate in the election of the Head of State and in giving him the pledge of allegiance. more