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Constitution of the Caliphate State for Android

Constitution of the Caliphate State / Ruling & Administration

Article 49: Department of executive assistant

The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 49: The Khalifah appoints assistants for implementation and their work is administrative. They are not rulers and their department is the institution that executes what the Khalifah issues in both of the internal and foreign affairs authorities and submits what comes to him from these authorities. The department is the intermediary between the Khalifah and others, conveying to and from him in the following matters:

  • a.Relations with the people
  • b.International relations
  • c.The military
  • d.The institutions

The executive assistant is the ministerwhom the Khalifah appoints to be his assistant in the execution of matters, the following up and implementation of his orders. He is the intermediary between the Khalifah and the various State departments, the subjects and the foreign office. He conveys messages to and from the Khalifah. He is an assistant in executing orders and is not authorised over them or entrusted with them i.e. his role is one of execution and administrative and not ruling. His department is a tool used to execute what the Khalifah issues to the internal and foreign offices, ensuring submission to the Khalifah in all that comes to him through these offices. His department acts as an intermediary between the Khalifah and others, where it conveys to them on his behalf and conveys to him from them.

The executive assistant used to be called a secretary (Al-Katib) at the time of the Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم and the righteous Khulafaa’. Then he became known as the keeper of the Diwan of letters or correspondence. Later, it was decided that he is called the secretary of composition or the keeper of the Diwan of composition and then the jurists named him the executive assistant (Wazir Al-Tanfidh).

As for the actions regarding the four issues mentioned – the evidence is through examination of the evidences related to the Katib (Wazir Al-Tanfidh) at the time of the Messenger  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم and the actions of the righteous Khulafaa’ in front of the masses of companions:

  • The messages sent to the subjects directly. Such as:

-   His  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم message to the people of Najran. Abu ’Ubayd narrated in Al-Amwal from Abu Al-Malih Al-Huthali which mentioned at its end

«شَـهِـدَ بِذَلِكَ عُـثْـمَـانُ بْـنُ عَفَّانَ وَمُعَيْقِيبُ، وَكَتَبَ»

-   “’Uthman Bin ’Affan and Mu’ayqib witnessed it, and he wrote”. Abu Yusuf reported it in Al-Kharaj and mentioned that the Katib was Al-Mughaira, and then it mentioned the message of Umar (ra) with the Katib being Mu’ayqib, and then the message of ’Uthman (ra) to them with the Katib being his servant Hamran, and then the message from ’Ali (ra) with the Katib being ’Abdullah b. Abi Rafi’.

-   His  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم message to Tamim Al-Dari. Abu Yusuf mentioned in Al-Kharaj saying

«قَامَ تَمِيمٌ الدَّارِيُّ وَهُوَ تَمِيمُ بْنُ أَوْسٍ - رَجُلٌ مِنْ لَخْمٍ - فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، إِنَّ لِي جِيرَةً مِنَ الرُّومِ بِفِلَسْطِينَ، لَهُمْ قَرْيَةٌ يُقَالُ لَهَا حِبْرَى، وَأُخْرَى يُقَالُ لَهَا عَيْـنُونُ، وَإِنْ فَتَحَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكَ الشَّامَ فَهَبْهُمَا لِي، فَقَالَ: هُمَا لَكَ. قَالَ: فَاكْـتُبْ لِي بِذَلِكَ، فَكَتَبَ لَهُ: بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ، هَذَا كِتَابٌ مِنْ مُحَمَّدٍ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ لِِتَمِيمِ بْنِ أَوْسِ الدَّارِيِّ، أَنَّ لَهُ قَرْيَةَ حِبْرَى وَبَيْتَ عَيْـنُونَ قَرْيَتُهَا كُلُّهَا، وَسَهْلُهَا وَجَبَلُهَا وَمَاؤُهَا وَحَرْثُهَا وَأَنْبَاطُهَا وَبَقَرُهَا وَلِعَقِبِهِ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ، لاَ يُحَاقُّهُ فِيهَا أَحَدٌ، وَلاَ يُلْحِدُ عَلَيْهِمْ أَحَدٌ بِظُلْمٍ، فَمَنْ ظَلَمَ وَأَخَذَ مِنْهُمْ شَيْئاً فَإِنَّ عَلَيْهِ لَعْنَةَ اللَّهِ وَالمَلاَئِكَةِ وَالنَّاسِ أَجْمَعِينَ. وَكَتَبَ عَلِيٌ»

“Tamim Al-Dari (Tamim Bin Aws, a man from Lakhm) stood up and said: O Messenger of Allah, I have a neighbourhood from the Romans in Palestine – there is a village which is called Hibra, and another called Aynun. If Allah opens as-Sham to you, grant them to me as a gift. And so he  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said – They are yours. He said – write that for me, and so he wrote: In the name of Allah, this is a message from Muhammad the Messenger of Allah to Tamim Bin Aws Al-Dari, that he has all the houses of the two villages: Hibra and Aynun, and their plains, mountains, water, agriculture, plants and its cattle, and for who comes after him. No one should contest over it with them, and no one should incline to take it by force. Whoever oppresses and takes anything from it, then they will have the curses of Allah and the angels and all of the people. ’Ali was the one who wrote it”. When Abu Bakr (ra) took the leadership, he wrote them a message which mentioned In the name of Allah – this is a message from Abu Bakr the guarantor of the Messenger of Allah succeeded on the Earth, he wrote to the people of Dari, no one should spoil anything by their hand from the villages of Hibra and Aynun, and whoever heard and obeyed Allah, then do not spoil anything from them, and should build two entrances around them to prevent anyone who intended to do so from entering

  • International relations:

-   The Treaty of Hudaybiyah: Al-Bukhari narrated from Al-Miswar and Marwan regarding the treaty:

«فَدَعَا النَّبِيُّ  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم الكَاتِبَ ...»

-   “So the Prophet  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم called the Katib (writer)…”. Abu Yusuf also narrated in the book Al-Kharaj saying:

«وَحَدَّثَنِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْحَقَ وَالكَلْبِيُّ، زَادَ بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ فِي الحَدِيثِ، وَفِيهِ: وَقَالَ: اكْـتُـبُوا ...»

-   Muhammad Ibn Ishaq and Al-Kalbi informed me, some others added in the narration saying: He said: Write (plural), without mentioning the name of the writer. Ibn Kathir reported

«قَالَ ابْنُ إِسْحَقَ قَالَ الزُّهْرِيُّ ... ثُمَّ دَعَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم عَلِيَّ بْنَ أَبِي طَالِبَ رضي الله عنه فَقَالَ: اكْتُبْ ...»

-   Ibn Ishaq said Al-Zuhri said…then the Messenger of Allah called upon ’Ali Ibn Abi Talib and said: ‘Write (singular)…’”. Abu ’Ubayd narrated it in the book of Al-Amwal from Ibn ’Abbas, where he said:

«... فَقَالَ لِعَلِيٍّ: أُكْـتُبْ يَا عَلِيُّ ...»

-   “….and he said to ’Ali: ‘O ’Ali, write…’” and Al-Hakim narrated from Ibn ’Abbas, and Al-Dhahabi authenticated and approved it, saying:

«... اُكْـتُبْ يَا عَلِيُّ ...»

-   “…..O ’Ali, write…”.The text of this peace treaty is well known and does not need mentioning here.

  • The Military:

-   The letter of Abu Bakr (ra) to Khalid (ra), in which he commands him to travel to as-Sham. Abu Yusuf said in the book Al-Kharaj: Khalid wanted to take Al-Heerah as his centre. However, the letter of Abu Bakr came to him commanding him to travel to as-Sham as reinforcement for Abu ’Ubaydah and the Muslims…”

  • The institutions of the state other than the military

-   The letter of the Messenger  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم to Mu’adh regarding the tenth (Al-Ushr): Yahya Ibn Adam narrated in the book of Al-Kharaj from Al-Hasan, he said:

«كَتَبَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم إِلَى مُعَاذٍ بِالْيَمَنِ: فِيمَا سَقَتِ السَّمَاءُ أَوْ سُقِيَ غَيْلاً العُشْرُ، وَمَا سُقِيَ بِالغَرْبِ فَنِصْفُ العُشْرِ»

-   “The Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم wrote to Mu’adh in Yemen: “A tenth is payable on what is watered by rain or by sizable water; and a twentieth (have of a tenth) on what is watered by bucket.” Al-Sha’bi wrote the same narration. IbnAbu Shaybah has also narrated similar in his book about ruling.

The Khalifah can appoint writers (Kuttab) according to his needs; rather it could reach to the level of being an obligation if he could not fulfill the obligatory tasks without appointing them. The authors who wrote the history of the Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم mention that he had about twenty such writers.

Some articles of the Constitution

The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 68: Officers of the general Staff

Article 68: It is obligatory that each base should have sufficient numbers of officers of the Ggeneral Staff who possess expert military knowledge and experience in drawing up plans and running battles. The Army as a whole should possess as many of these officers as possible. more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 63: The Army

Article 63: The Army has two sections: the reserve section, which is all those Muslims who are capable of carrying arms, and the section of regular soldiers, who get salaries from the State budget in the same manner as the civil servants. more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 191: Participation in organizations

Article 191: The State is forbidden to belong to any organisation which is based on anything other than Islam or which applies non-Islamic rules. This includes international organisations like the United Nations, the International Court of Justice, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and regional organisations like the Arab League. more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 144: The Jizya

Article 144:Jizya is collected from non-Muslims (people of Dhimma). It is to be taken from the adult men if they are capable of paying it, and it is not taken from women or children. more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 67: The educational intellectual and cultural preparing of the Army

Article 67: It is obligatory to provide the Army with the highest level of military education and raise its intellectual level as far as possible. Every individual in the Army should be given Islamicculture that enables him to have an awareness of Islam, to at least a general level. more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 126: The wealth belongs to Allah (swt)

Article 126: The wealth belongs to Allah (swt) alone, and He (swt) has made human beings the trustees of it. Through this general trust they have been given the right to ownership of wealth. Allah (swt) has permitted for the individual to possess the wealth; so through this specific permission, he managed to possess it practically. more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State

Article 80: The court and the verdict

Article 80: The courts should be comprised of only one judge who has the authority to pronounce judgement. One or more judges are permitted to accompany him, however they do not have the authority of judgement but rather the authority of consulting and giving their opinion, and their opinion is not considered binding. more

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