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Constitution of the Caliphate State for Android

Constitution of the Caliphate State / Foreign Policy

Article 182: Relations with foreign countries

The Constitution of the Caliphate State, Article 182: It is absolutely forbidden for any individual, party, group or association to have relations with a foreign state. Relations with foreign countries are restricted to the State alone because the State has the sole right of governing the affairs of the Ummah practically. The Ummah can account the State regarding foreign relations.

 

Its evidence is the words of the Prophet  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم :

«الإِمَامُ رَاعٍ وَهُوَ وَمَسْؤُولٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ»

The Imam (ruler) is a guardian and he is responsible for his subjects” (reported by Al-Bukhari from ‘Abd Allah b. Umar), and the Shari’ah gave the practical undertaking of the governing of the affairs which would be binding to the ruler alone, and so it is not permitted for the subjects to carry out the actions of the ruler and it is not permitted for any of the Muslims to carry out the actions of the ruler unless they were appointed to do that according to the Shari’ah, either through a pledge of allegiance from the people if he was the Khalifah, or by appointment from the Khalifah, or from one of his assistants or governors whom had given the right to make appointments. Anyone who had not been appointed through the pledge of allegiance, and had not been appointed by the Khalifah, is not permitted to undertake anything from the practical governing of the affairs of the Ummah, domestically or internationally.

It is imperative here that this rule is clarified from the angle of the evidence, and the reality upon which the evidence applies. As for the evidence, the authority has been given by the Shari’ah to the ruler alone and governing the people has been left to the ruler alone; the Messenger  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:

«مَنْ كَرِهَ مِنْ أَمِيرِهِ شَيْئًا فَلْيَصْبِرْ عَلَيْهِ، فَإِنَّهُ لَيْسَ أَحَدٌ مِنْ النَّاسِ خَرَجَ مِنْ السُّلْطَانِ شِبْرًا فَمَاتَ عَلَيْهِ إِلاَّ مَاتَ مِيتَةً جَاهِلِيَّةً»

Whoever dislikes a thing done by his leader (Amir) should be patient over it, for anyone from the people who withdraws (his obedience) from the government, even to the extent of a handspan and died in that conditions, would die the death of one belonging to the days of Jahilliyya.(agreed upon from the narration of Ibn ‘Abbas), and so it made rebellion against him rebellion against the authority, and consequently in that case he is the one who alone possesses the authority. The Messenger  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:

«كَانَتْ بَنُو إِسْرَائِيلَ تَسُوسُهُمْ الأَنْبِيَاءُ، كُلَّمَا هَلَكَ نَبِيٌّ خَلَفَهُ نَبِيٌّ، وَإِنَّهُ لا نَبِيَّ بَعْدِي، وَسَيَكُونُ خُلَفَاءُ»

Banu Isra'il were ruled over by the Prophets. When one Prophet died, another succeeded him; but after me there is no Prophet and there will be Khulafaa'” (agreed upon from the narration of Abu Hurayrah), and its meaning is that the Muslims are ruled by the Khulafaa’, and, therefore, the one who rules the Muslims has been specified. The understanding from this is that other than the Amir would not be an authority and that other than the Khulafaa’ do not rule. This is evidence that the governing of the affairs is for the ruler alone and not for anyone else. Additionally, the action of the Messenger  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم shows that he  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم was the authority, and undertook the ruling of the people with it by his  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم characteristic of being the Head of State, and he  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم was the one who appointed whoever would undertake the actions of authority or the actions of ruling the subjects. So he  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم appointed the one who would take his  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم place in Madinah whenever he  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم went out for any of the battles, and he  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم appointed the governors, judges, money collectors, and whoever undertook an interest such as distributing water, estimating the amounts of fruit (for tax purposes), and so on. This is all evidence that the authority and ruling the people is restricted to the ruler, in other words, to the Khalifah and whoever the Khalifah appointed, to the Amir and whoever the Amir appointed. The authority is the governing of the affairs of the people that is binding upon them, and ruling the subjects is reported in the words of the Messenger  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم : “were ruled by”, which is the governing of the people that is binding upon them. Built upon this is that governing the affairs of the people is a binding governance; in other words, the undertaking of the responsibility of the ruler is restricted to the ruler, and so it is completely forbidden for anyone else to undertake it, since the Shari’ah gave the authority and looking after people’s affairs to the Khalifah and whoever he appoints. So if anyone other than the Imam or those appointed by him carries out the actions of ruling and authority, and takes upon themselves ruling the people, their action contradicts the Shari’ah and is considered to be void, and every void action is forbidden (Haram), and so it is not permitted for anyone other that the Khalifah or who he appointed, in other words, other than the ruler, to undertake any action of ruling and authority. Consequently, he does not undertake the governing of the affairs of the people in a binding manner, in other words, he does not rule the people, since this is from the actions of the ruler and it is not permitted for anyone other than the ruler to carry it out.

This is from the angle of the evidence; as for from the angle of the reality, the undertaking of governing some of the affairs in a binding manner by a group is from the understanding of the democratic rule. The democratic rule is made up of institutions, the highest of which is the cabinet, in other words, the government, but there are others who carry out governing some of the affairs in a binding manner, or in other words, undertake ruling in some particular area. For example, there are unions, so the lawyers’ union undertakes governing the affairs of the lawyers in their professional capacity, and this is binding upon them and so they have authority over them in specific issues; it grants them the right to practise law and signs off on any punishments upon them, and sets up a retirement fund for them, and other things that are from the actions of ruling and authority which the State appointed to it in regards to the legal profession, and its judgement is implemented just like the judgement of the cabinet without any difference. This is the same with the doctors’ union and the rest of the unions. This is the reality upon which the evidence applies with respect to within the State. Internationally, some of the democratic countries permit the opposition party to communicate with other states, and gives it the right to conduct negotiations with those states while it is not ruling, and it has agreements with other states regarding issues connected to the relationships between the two states that they will implement once they get into power. This is the reality upon when the evidence applies with respect to international affairs.

Therefore, this reality which is that some institutions such as syndicates undertake governing some of the affairs domestically in a binding manner, and some institutions such as the political parties undertake some of the affairs internationally in a manner which is binding, is not at all permitted by Islam. This is because the authority and undertaking ruling of the people has been given to the Khalifah or Amir alone, or to whom the Amir or Khalifah appointed, and so it is not permitted for anyone else to undertake a single issue from it since this would contradict the Shari’ah.

Additionally, undertaking the governing of the affairs in a manner that is binding is a governorship over the people, and governorship is a contract that must be concluded between two sides, either between the Ummah and the Khalifah, or between the Amir and the Ummah who appointed him, or between the Khalifah or Amir and who they appointed. Whoever undertakes the governing of the affairs without a contract of governorship, then his action is invalid, and every invalid action is forbidden (Haram) without any difference. Therefore, undertaking the governing of the affairs in a manner which is binding would be invalid, and from this understanding it is forbidden for political parties and individuals in the Ummah to have any relationship with any foreign state in which that relationship would include what would be considered as undertaking the governing of an issue from the issues of the Ummah in a binding manner, and this is the evidence for this article.

Some articles of the Constitution

The Constitution of the Caliphate State

Article 12: The sources of legislation

Article 12: The Book, the Sunnah, the Ijmaa’ of the Sahabah and the Qiyas (analogy) are the only evidences considered in Shari’ah laws, and it is not permitted to adopt any legislation from other than these evidences. more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 28: The position of Caliph

Article 28: No one can be Khalifa unless the Muslims appoint him, and no one possesses the mandatory powers of the leadership of the State unless the contract with him has been concluded according tothe Shari’ah, like any contract in Islam. more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 159: Agricultural affairs and policy

Article 159: The State supervises agricultural affairs and its produce in accordance with the needs of the agricultural policy which is to achieve the potential of the land to its greatest level of production. more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 55: Coordination between governor and Caliph

Article 55: The governor is not obliged to inform the Caliph (Khalifah) of what he has carried out within his authorised command. If a new problem arises which has no precedent, he has to inform the Khalifah about it first, and he then proceeds according to the instructions of the Khalifah. If he was afraid that the problem would be exacerbated if delayed, he carries out the action and then must… more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State

Article 18: The rulers and the employees

Article 18: There are four types of rulers: the Khalifah, the delegated assistant, the governor, and the worker (’amil), and whoever falls under the same rule. As for anyone else, they are not considered rulers, but rather employees. more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 61: The War Department

Article 61: The War Department is in charge of all the affairs connected to the armed forces of the Army and police, and the treaties, tasks, military equipment and similar. They are also responsible for the military colleges, expeditions and everything that is necessary from the Islamic culture and the general culture necessary for the Army, as well as everything connected to war and its… more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 93: The right to appoint proxy in the disputes and defence

Article 93: Every person has the right to appoint whomsoever he wishes as a proxy (Wakeel) for oneself in the disputes and defence, irrespective of whether he is Muslim or not, male or female. There is no distinction in this matter between the commissioner and the proxy. The proxy is permitted to be appointed for a fee according to the terms agreed upon with the commissioner. more

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