Constitution of the Caliphate State / Economic System
- Category: Economic System §123-169
Article 129: Public property is the permission of the Legislator (swt) for the community to collectively utilise the property itself.
The evidence for this article is that the Shari’ah evidences indicate that the definition of public property is the permission of the Legislator (swt) for the community to collectively utilise the property, and the evidences for this definition are the texts related regarding public property. The words of the Messenger :
«الْمُسْلِمُونَ شُرَكَاءُ فِي ثَلاَثٍ: الْمَاءِ وَالْكَلإِ وَالنَّارِ»
“Muslims have common share in three (things).water, grass, and fire.” reported by Ahmad from a man from the companions of the Prophet , and his narrators are trustworthy, and what Al-Tirmidhi narrated from Abyad b. Hammal:
«أنه وفد إلى رسول الله فاستقطعه الملح، فقطع له. فلما أن ولّى قال رجل من المجلس: أتدري ما قطعت له؟ إنما قطعت له الماء العد. قال فانتزعه منه»
“Went to the Messenger of Allah and asked him for assigning him (the mines of) salt as fief. So he assigned it to him as a fief. When he returned, a man in the meeting asked: Do you know what you have assigned him as a fief? You have assigned him the perennial spring water. So he took it back from him”. The countless water is that which does not deplete, in other words, if you extracted a mineral from it, it does not deplete. And he said:
«مِنًى مُنَاخُ مَنْ سَبَقَ»
“Mina is a resting place for whoever gets their first”,reported by Al-Tirmidhi from Aisha(ra) and he said it is Hasan Sahih, and Mina is the famous location in the Hijaz which the pilgrims descend to after standing at Arafat, and all the people can rest their camels there if they arrive there before others. And the Prophet affirmed that people participate in the use of general roads. The definition of public property was derived from all of this, since these texts indicate that the Legislator (swt) gave permission to people to participate collectively in these things and hence it was deduced. On this basis the article was drafted.