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Constitution of the Caliphate State for Android

Constitution of the Caliphate State / Economic System

Article 143: The Zakah

 The Constitution of the Caliphate State, Article 143: Zakah is collected from Muslims, and is taken from the wealth which the Shari’ah has specified such as money, the profits of trade, cattle and grains. It is not taken from anything which the Shari’ah did not mention. It is taken from every owner irrespective of whether they were legally responsible/accountable (Mukallaf) such as the mature, sane person or whether they were not legally responsible such as the child and the insane. The Zakah is placed in a specific section of the Bayt Al-Mal, and is not spent except upon one or more of the eight categories mentioned in the noble Quran.

This article encompasses the following five issues: first: the obligation of Zakah upon the Muslims; second: it is taken from the property that the Shari’ah specified and nothing else; third: it is taken from every owner; fourth: it is placed in a specific section of the Bayt Al-Mal; fifth: it is not spent upon anyone other than the specific individuals that meet certain characteristics and numbers.

As for the first issue, which is the obligation of Zakah, its evidence is the noble Quran such as His (swt) words:

(( وَآَتَوُا الزَّكَاةَ ))

And give Zakah(TMQ 2:43), and:

(( وَأَقِمْنَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآَتِينَ الزَّكَاةَ ))

And establish prayer and give Zakah(TMQ 33:33), and:

×(( رِجَالٌ لَا تُلْهِيهِمْ تِجَارَةٌ وَلَا بَيْعٌ عَنْ ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَإِقَامِ الصَّلَاةِ وَإِيتَاءِ الزَّكَاةِ ))

Men whom neither commerce nor sale distracts from the remembrance of Allah and performance of prayer and giving of Zakah.” (TMQ 24:37). And there is also proof from the Sunnah, when the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم sent Mu’adh to Yemen and said to him:

«أَعْلِمْهُمْ أَنَّ اللهَ افْتَرَضَ عَلَيْهِمْ صَدَقَةً، تُؤْخَذُ مِنْ أَغْنِيَائِهِمْ وَتُرَدُّ عَلَى فُقَرَائِهِمْ»

teach them that Allah has made it obligatory for them to pay the Zakah from their property and it is to be taken from the wealthy among them and given to the poor.” (agreed upon from Ibn Abbas), and the narration:

«بُنِيَ الإِسْلامُ عَلَى خَمْسٍ»

Islam is built upon five” agreed upon from Ibn Umar, in which he صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم mentioned:

«وَإِيتَاءِ الزَّكَاةِ»

and to give Zakah”. It is reported from Abu Hurayrah that a Bedouin came to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم and said: “Guide me to an action that if I did it I would enter Paradise”. He صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:

«اللهَ لا تُشْرِكُ بِهِ شَيْئاً، وَتُقِيمُ الصَّلاةَ المَكْتُوبَةَ، وَتُؤَدِّي الزَّكَاةَ الْمَفْرُوضَةَ، وَتَصُومُ رَمَضَانَ»

Worship Allah and do not associate anything with Him, and establish the obligatory prayers, and pay the necessary Zakah, and fast Ramadan” (reported by Al-Bukhari). And it is narrated from Qais who said: “Jarir Bin Abdullah said:

«بَايَعْتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم عَلَى إِقَامِ الصَّلاةِ وَإِيتَاءِ الزَّكَاةِ وَالنُّصْحِ لِكُلِّ مُسْلِمٍ»

“I gave pledge of allegiance to the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم on the observance of prayer, payment of Zakah, and sincerity and well-wishing for every Muslim.” (agreed upon). These evidences indicate the obligation of Zakah, and as for the fact that is not taken from anyone other than the Muslims, this is due to the words of the Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم in the narration of Mu’ath:

«تُؤْخَذُ مِنْ أَغْنِيَائِهِمْ»

taken from the wealthy”, and as for the fact that it is given to the Muslims and not to anyone else is due to the words in the same narration:

«وَتُرَدُّ عَلَى فُقَرَائِهِمْ»

and given to the poor”, in other words, the Muslims.

With respect to the second issue, which is that Zakah is not taken from any property other than that which has been specified by the Shari’ah, its evidence is that the Legislator (swt) restricted the categories from which Zakah is taken by defining the amount which is taken from each of these categories. So everything that the Shari’ah defined a Nisab (minimum level after which the Zakah becomes obligatory) for, has Zakah taken from it once it reaches the Nisab and if it doesn’t reach it then nothing is taken from it, due to what was related from Jabir who said:

«لَيْسَ فِيمَا دُونَ خَمْسِ أَوَاقٍ مِنْ الْوَرِقِ صَدَقَةٌ، وَلَيْسَ فِيمَا دُونَ خَمْسِ ذَوْدٍ مِنْ الإِبِلِ صَدَقَةٌ، وَلَيْسَ فِيمَا دُونَ خَمْسَةِ أَوْسُقٍ مِنْ التَّمْرِ صَدَقَةٌ»

The Messenger of Allah said: “No (Zakah) Sadaqa is payable on less than five Fiqiyas (Awaq) of silver, and on less than five heads of camels, and less than five Wasqs of dates. (reported by Muslim).

Zakah is not taken from property that has not had a Nisab defined by the Shari’ah. This is because though the verse is summarised (Mujmal), the narrations came and explained it. And so the narrations regarding Zakah explain the generality of the verse and are not specifications for it. There is a large difference between explanation and specification. The prayer came in a summarised form:

(( وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ ))

And establishes the prayer (TMQ 2:43) and the Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم came and explained it, and so anything outside of what the Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم explained as part of the prayer is not permitted to be considered relevant, since we are restricted by what the Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم explained. In the same manner, the verse regarding Zakah came in a summarised form:

(( وَآَتَوُا الزَّكَاةَ ))

And give Zakah(TMQ 2:43):

(( خُذْ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ ))

Take, [O, Muhammad], from their wealth.” (TMQ 9:103):

(( إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقَاتُ ))

Zakah expenditures are only for.” (TMQ 9:60), and the narrations came and explained the categories from which Zakah is taken by explaining the amount which is taken from these categories, and the Nisab for them, Zakah is not taken from anything else, and it is forbidden to take Zakah from anything other than whatever the Shari’ah mentioned the Nisab for and the amount taken from it. So accordingly there is no Zakah upon housing, or cars or olives, since the Legislator did not mention the Nisab for any Zakah upon them, nor the amount which should be taken from them if they reached the value of the Nisab, and, therefore, there is no Zakah upon them, and taking Zakah is limited to the properties which have been mentioned in a Shari’ah text. Therefore, Zakah is only taken from the ten things which have been mentioned in authentic texts, which are camels, cows, cattle, gold, silver, wheat, barley, dates and raisins.

As for camels and cattle, the evidence is what has been related from Al-Zuhri from Salem from his father who said:

«كَانَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم قَدْ كَتَبَ الصَّدَقَةَ وَلَمْ يُخْرِجْهَا إِلَى عُمَّالِهِ حَتَّى تُوُفِّيَ، قَالَ: فَأَخْرَجَهَا أَبُو بَكْرٍ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ فَعَمِلَ بِهَا حَتَّى تُوُفِّيَ، ثُمَّ أَخْرَجَهَا عُمَرُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ فَعَمِلَ بِهَا. قَالَ: فَلَقَدْ هَلَكَ عُمَرُ يَوْمَ هَلَكَ وَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ لَمَقْرُونٌ بِوَصِيَّتِهِ، قَالَ: فَكَانَ فِيهَا فِي الإِبِلِ فِي خَمْسِ شَاةٍ، حَتَى تَنْتَهِي إِلَى أَرْبَعٍ وَعِشْرِينَ، فَإِذَا بَلَغَتْ إِلَى خَمْسٍ وَعِشْرينَ فَفِيهَا بِنْتُ مَخَاضٍ، إِلَى خَمْسٍ وَثَلاثِينَ، فَإِنْ لَمْ تَكُنْ بِنْتُ مَخَاضٍ فَابْنُ لَبُونٍ، فَإِذَا زَادَتْ عَلَى خَمْسٍ وَثَلاثِينَ فَفِيهَا بِنْتُ لَبُونٍ، إِلَى خَمْسٍ وَأَرْبَعِينَ، فَإِذَا زَادَتْ وَاحِدَةٌ فَفِيهَا حُقَّةٌ، إِلَى سِتِّينَ، فَإِذَا زَادَتْ فَفِيهَا جَذِعَةٌ، إِلَى خَمْسٍ وَسَبْعِينَ، فَإِذَا زَادَتْ فَفِيهَا ابْنَتَا لَبُونٍ، إَلَى تِسْعِينَ، فَإِذَا زَادَتْ فَفِيهَا حُقَّتَانِ، إِلَى عِشْرِينَ وَمَائَةٍ، فَإِذَا كَثُرَتْ الإِبِلُ فَفِي كُلِّ خَمْسِينَ حُقَّةٌ، وَفِي كُلِّ أَرْبَعِينَ بِنْتُ لَبُونٍ. وَفِي الغَنَمِ مِنْ أَرْبَعِينَ شَاةً شَاةً، إِلَى عِشْرِينَ وَمِائَةٍ، فَإِذَا زَادَتْ شَاةٌ فَفِيهَا شَاتَانِ، إِلَى مِائَتَيْنِ، فَإِذَا زَادَتْ فَفِيهَا ثَلاثُ شِياهٍ، إِلَى ثَلاثُمَائَةٍ، فَإِذَا زَادَتْ بَعْدُ فَلَيْسَ فِيهَا شَيْءٌ حَتَى تَبْلُغَ أَرْبَعُمَائَةٍ، فَإذَا كَثُرَتْ الْغَنَمُ فَفِي كُلِّ مِائَةٍ شَاةٌ»

And the Messenger wrote the Sadaqah (Zakah), and died before he could send it to his governors; he said: and so Abu Bakr sent it and acted according to it until he died, and then Omar did so. He said: Omar died the day he died, and wrote in his will: that there was a sheep (to be given) for every five camels, until twenty four camels.If there were twenty five camels, then a female baby camel (Bint Al-Makhaadh) is due, and if they didn’t have one, then a male camel son of a milk-bearing camel (Ibn Laboon). If there were more than thirty five camels, then a daughter of a milk-bearing camel (Bint Laboon) is due up to forty five camels, and if there is one more up until sixty, then a female camel (Hiqqah) is due, and if there is more than that up to seventy five, then a female camel whose front teeth (Jaza’a; older than four years) is due, and for more than that up until ninety then two daughters of milk-bearing camels are due, and if there are more than that up one hundred and twenty then two female camels are due, and if there are more than that then for every fifty a female camel is due and for every forty a daughter of a milk-bearing camel is due. And in cattle, for every forty until one hundred and twenty one female sheep is due, if there is one more than that up until two hundred then two female sheep are due, and if there are more than that then up until three hundred three female sheep are due, and if there is more than that then nothing is due until four hundred, at which point a female sheep is due for every one hundred” (reported by Ahmad and Abu Dawud and Al-Tirmidhi). It is narrated from Anas:

»أَنَّ أَبَا بَكْرٍ كَتَبَ لَهُمْ: إِنَّ هَذهِ فَرَائِضُ الصَّدَقَةِ الَّتِي فَرَضَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم عَلَى الْمُسْلِمِينَ الَّتِي أَمَرَ اللهُ بِهَا وَرَسُولُهُ«

Abu Bakr wrote to them: this is the obligation of Sadaqah which the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم enjoined upon the Muslims, as Allah, the Mighty and Sublime, commanded the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم (reported by Al-Bukhari), and then mentioned camels and cattle in the same manner as the narration of Al-Zuhri. The Bint Al-makhaadh is a female camel between one and two years, and a Bint labun is older than two years whose mother is milk bearing through giving birth, and the daughter of such a camel is called the Bint labun. And the Hiqqah is the female camel older than three years, and the Jaza’a is older than four. The fact that the narrations mentions the Bint Labun for more than thirty five camels indicates the permissibility to give a Bint Labun instead, which is why Bukhari added ‘female’.

As for cows, the evidence is what has been related from Mu’adh Bin Jabal who said:

«بَعَثَنِي النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم إِلَى الْيَمَنِ، فَأَمَرَنِي أَنْ آخُذَ مِنْ كُلِّ ثَلاَثِينَ بَقَرَةً تَبِيعًا أَوْ تَبِيعَةً، وَمِنْ كُلِّ أَرْبَعِينَ مُسِنَّةً...»

The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم sent me to Yemen, and commanded me to take from every thirty, cattle a male or female Tabi' (two-year-old baby cow), and from every forty, a Musinnah (three-year-old cow)” (reported by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Al-Nasa’i and Al-Tirmidhi who considered it Hasan). Yahya b. Al-Hakm narrated from Mu’adh who said:

«بَعَثَنِي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم أُصَدِّقُ أَهْلَ الْيَمَنِ وَأَمَرَنِي أَنْ آخُذَ مِنْ الْبَقَرِ مِنْ كُلِّ ثَلَاثِينَ تَبِيعًا قَالَ هَارُونُ وَالتَّبِيعُ الْجَذَعُ أَوْ الْجَذَعَةُ، وَمِنْ كُلِّ أَرْبَعِينَ مُسِنَّةً قَالَ فَعَرَضُوا عَلَيَّ أَنْ آخُذَ مِنْ الأَرْبَعِينَ قَالَ هَارُونُ مَا بَيْنَ الأَرْبَعِينَ أَوْ الْخَمْسِينَ وَبَيْنَ السِّتِّينَ وَالسَّبْعِينَ وَمَا بَيْنَ الثَّمَانِينَ وَالتِّسْعِينَ فَأَبَيْتُ ذَاكَ وَقُلْتُ لَهُمْ حَتَّى أَسْأَلَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم عَنْ ذَلِكَ فَقَدِمْتُ فَأَخْبَرْتُ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم فَأَمَرَنِي أَنْ آخُذَ مِنْ كُلِّ ثَلاثِينَ تَبِيعًا وَمِنْ كُلِّ أَرْبَعِينَ مُسِنَّةً وَمِنْ السِّتِّينَ تَبِيعَيْنِ... وَأَمَرَنِي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم أَنْ لا آخُذَ فِيمَا بَيْنَ ذَلِكَ...»

The Messenger of Allah sent me to take the Sadaqah from the people of Yemen, and commanded me to take a Tabee’a from every thirty, and a Musinnah from every forty, and then they asked me what should be given for between fifty and sixty, and sixty and seventy, and eighty and ninety, and so I returned and informed the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم who commanded me not to take anything between those” (reported by Ahmad with a chain considered Hasan by Al-Zayn). Ahmad reported that Mu’adh Bin Jabal who said:

«لَمْ يَأْمُرْنِي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم فِي أَوْقَاصِ الْبَقَرِ شَيْئًا»

“The Messenger of Allah didn’t command me to take anything of Awqas Al-Baker.” Al-Awqas is the plural of Waqs and it is the amount between the Tabee’ah or Tabee’a, and the Musinnah, or Musinnah. The Tabee’ah or Tabee’a are the male and female cows of less than one year in age, and the Musinnah is the female cow in her second year.

As for gold and silver, its evidence is what is related from ‘Ali b. Abi Talib (ra) from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم who said:

«إِذَا كَانَتْ لَكَ مِائَتَا دِرْهَمٍ وَحَالَ عَلَيْهَا الْحَوْلُ فَفِيهَا خَمْسَةُ دَرَاهِمَ، وَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكَ شَيْءٌ، يَعْنِي فِي الذَّهَبِ، حَتَّى يَكُونَ لَكَ عِشْرُونَ دِينَاراً، فَإِذَا كَانَ لَكَ عِشْرُونَ دِينَارًا وَحَالَ عَلَيْهَا الْحَوْلُ فَفِيهَا نِصْفُ دِينَارٍ»

When you possess two hundred Dirhams at the end of the year (if you still have all of them), five Dirhams are levied on them as Zakah. There is nothing upon you (to be paid) in gold, until it reaches (the value of) twenty Dinars. When you possess twenty Dinars, at the end of the year, then there is half a Dinar levied on it (as Zakah)” (reported by Abu Dawud and it is Hasan). A Dirham is six Daaniqs, and a Daniq is two Qiraats, and a Qiraat is two Tazuj and a Tazuj is two Habbah, and a Habba is a sixth of an eighth of a Dirham, which is a part of the forty eight parts of a Dirham. This is the weight of the Shari’ah Dirham which is mentioned in the narration. A Dinar is a Mithqaal, and the Mithqaal is a Dirham and 3/7 of a Dirham, which is the weight of the Shari’ah Dinar mentioned in the narration.

As for wheat, barley, dates and raisins, the evidence is what has been related by Al-Hakim and Al-Bayhaqi and Al-Tabarani from the narration of Abu Musa and Mu’adh when the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم sent them both to Yemen in order to teach the people the issue of their Deen, saying:

«لاَ تَأْخُذَا الصَّدَقَةَ إِلاَّ مِنْ هِذِهِ الأَرْبَعَةِ: الشَّعِيرُ وَالْحِنْطَةُ وَالزَّبِيبُ وَالتَّمْرُ»

Do not take Sadaqah (Zakah) except from these four: Barley, wheat, raisins and dates” (authenticated by Al-Hakim and Bayhaqi said that the narrators are trustworthy and the chain is connected). Al-Daraqutni reported in his Sunan from Abdullah BinAmrf who said:

«إِنَّمَا سَنَّ رَسُولُ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم الزَّكَاةَ فِي: الْحِنْطَةِ وَالشَّعِيرِ وَالتَّمْرِ وَالزَّبِيبِ»

The Messenger of Allah made Zakah only in the following four: Barley, wheat, raisins, and dates”, and it is narrated from Al-Shu’ba that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم wrote to the people of Yemen saying:

«إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقَةُ فِي الْحِنْطَةِ وَالشَّعِيرِ وَالتَّمْرِ وَالزَّبِيبِ»

Sadaqah (Zakah) is only in wheat, barley, dates and raisins” (reported by Al-Bayhaqi from Al-Shu’ba as a Mursalnarration).

As for the narrations that mention Zakah upon corn – they are weak. For example Ibn Maja reported from ‘Amru b. Shu’ayb from his father from his grandfather:

«إِنَّمَا سَنَّ رَسُولُ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم الزَّكَاةَ فِي: الْحِنْطَةِ وَالشَّعِيرِ وَالتَّمْرِ وَالزَّبِيبِ والذُّرَةِ»

The Messenger of Allah made Zakah in the following: barley, wheat, raisins, dates and corn”. Al-Hafiz said in Al-Talkhis: “Their chains, in other words, the chains of Al-Daraqutni and Ibn Maja, are baseless since Al-Arzami is in them and he is rejected.” And similarly what Al-Bayhaqi reported from Al-Hasan who said:

«لَمْ يَفْرِضَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم إِلاَّ فِي عَشَرَةِ أَشْيَاءٍ: الإِبِلُ وَالْبَقَرُ وَالْغَنَمُ وَالذَّهَبُ وَالْفِضَّةُ وَالْحِنْطَةُ وَالشَّعِيرُ وَالتَّمْرُ وَالزَّبِيبُ، قَالَ ابْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ أَرَاهُ قَالَ وَالذُّرَةُ»

The Messenger of Allah did not make Zakah obligatory except in ten things: camels, cows, sheep, gold, silver, barley, wheat, dates, raisins – Ibn ‘Uyayaba said: I think he said and corn”. Al-Hafiz said in Al-Talkhis that the report of Al-Hasan is a Mursalnarration from ‘Amru b. ‘Ubayd who is very weak, and Abu Hatim said his narrations are not considered. Similarly Al-Bayhaqi himself mentioned in his Sunan Al-Kubra in another report from Al-Hasan which had ‘Amru b. ‘Ubayd in it:

«لَمْ يَجْعَلْ رَسُولُ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم الصَّدَقَةَ إِلاَّ فِي عَشَرَةٍ فَذَكَرَهُنَّ وَذَكَرَ فِيهِنَّ السُّلْتُ وَلَمْ يَذْكُرْ الذُّرَةُ»

The Messenger of Allah did not obligate Sadaqah (Zakah) except upon ten and then he mentioned them, and mentioned a type of barley, but didn’t mention corn”. So, the two narrations with their weak chains, are different, and so accordingly the narration about the Zakah upon corn is weak.

These are the four categories (wheat, barley, dates and raisins) that have Zakah taken from them, and no Zakah is taken from anything else at all. As for what is narrated from Jabir that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:

«فِيمَا سَقَتْ الأَنْهَارُ وَالْغَيْمُ الْعُشُورُ، وَفِيمَا سُقِيَ بِالسَّانِيَةِ نِصْفُ الْعُشْرِ»

A tenth is payable on what is watered by rivers, or rains, and a twentieth on what is watered by camels.(reported by Muslim), and what is narrated from Ibn Umar that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:

«فِيمَا سَقَتْ السَّمَاءُ وَالْعُيُونُ أَوْ كَانَ عَثَرِيًّا الْعُشْرُ، وَمَا سُقِيَ بِالنَّضْحِ نِصْفُ الْعُشْرِ»

A tenth is due as Zakah, on every plant watered by heaven (rain water), springs, or underground water (i.e. watered without effort).While half a tenth is paid on what is watered by irrigation (i.e. machines are used).(reported by Al-Bukhari), and Al-‘itri is something that takes its water through its roots without necessarily being watered, and from Abu Sa’id that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:

«لَيْسَ فِيمَا دُونَ خَمْسَةِ أَوْسُقٍ صَدَقَةٌ»

No Sadaqa (Zakah) is payable on less than five Wasqs of (dates or grains: All of these narrations are summarised (Mujmal) texts regarding the Zakah upon crops and fruits, which other narrations came and explained, and defined exactly what has Zakah taken from it, and above that their explanations came in a restrictive manner, such as what was mentioned by Al-Hakim and Al-Bayhaqi and Al-Tabarani:

«لاَ تَأْخُذَا الصَّدَقَةَ إِلاَّ مِنْ هِذِهِ الأَرْبَعَةِ»

Do not take Sadaqah (Zakah) except from these four” (authenticated by Al-Hakim and Al-Bayhaqi said its narrators are trustworthy). And what Al-Daraqutni reported in his Sunan:

«إِنَّمَا سَنِّ رَسُولُ اللهِ الزَّكَاةَ فِي: الْحِنْطَةِ وَالشَّعِيرِ وَالتَّمْرِ وَالزَّبِيبِ»

The Messenger of Allah only made Zakah in: Barley, wheat, raisins, and dates”. There is no doubt that the words: “not” and: “except” in the first narration, and: “only” in the second, are all styles of restricting. Accordingly they indicate the restriction of Zakah of crops and fruits to these four, and this is why the narrations: “whatever is watered by the sky” and: “whatever is watered by the rivers” and so on are not related to taking Zakah from whatever is grown, but rather they are summarised texts explained by other texts, and Zakah upon what is grown is restricted to being taken from the five mentioned categories and nothing else. This is supported by other narrations of the same meaning, such as what was related by Al-Daraqutni in his Sunan from ‘Amru b. Shu’ayb from his father from his grandfather that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:

«وَالْعُشْرُ فِي التَّمْرِ وَالزَّبِيبِ وَالْحِنْطَةِ وَالشَّعِيرِ»

A tenth is due from dates, raisins, wheat and barley”. All of this indicates that Zakah upon crops and fruits is only taken from specific categories, counted in some narrations as four which are barley, wheat, raisins and dates, and there are many narrations about this and all of them authentic. This all confirms that there is no Zakah on crops and fruits except what is mentioned in these texts.

With respect to His (swt) words:

(( وَآَتُوا حَقَّهُ يَوْمَ حَصَادِهِ ))

And give its due [Zakah] on the day of its harvest.” (TMQ 6:141), this verse was not revealed for Zakah since it is a Makkan verse, and Zakah was only obligated in Madinah, which is why it mentions pomegranates which does not have anything due upon it. Mujahid said: “if he harvested his crop he would throw it to them from the grain tips, and if he found (fruit on) his palm trees he would throw it to them from the stalks”. And an-Nakha’i and Abu Ja’far said: “this verse is abrogated, and it is understood in relation to whatever resulted from his harvesting, evidenced by the fact that the pomegranate mentioned after it has no Zakah upon it”. It is mentioned in the Al-Muheet dictionary: “harvesting crops, and plants are harvested….to cut by sickle”. So even if it is accepted that it is part of Zakah then it is applied to whatever has been harvested, because pomegranate is not harvested, and so it is from the summarised class of evidence, and the narrations came and explained from which harvested things Zakah applies to, which are wheat, barley and corn. In any case, since the verse was revealed in Makkah, and Zakah had not yet been obligated, there is enough reason not to use it as evidence.

As for what was related from Abu Sayyarah who said:

«قُلْتُ: يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ، إِنَّ لِي نَحْلاً، قَالَ: فَأَدِّ العُشُورَ، قَالَ: قُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ، احْمِ لِي جَبَلَهَا، قَالَ: فَحَمَى لِي جَبَلَهَا» وعن عمرو بن شعيب عن أبيه عن جده قال: «جَاءَ هِلالٌ، أَحَدُ بَنِي مُتْعَانَ، إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم بِعُشُورِ نَحْلٍ لَهُ، وَكَانَ سَأَلَهُ أَنْ يَحْمِيَ لَهُ وَادِيًا يُقَالُ لَهُ سَلَبَةُ، فَحَمَى لَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم ذَلِكَ الْوَادِي. فَلَمَّا وُلِّيَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ رضي الله عنه كَتَبَ سُفْيَانُ بْنُ وَهْبٍ إِلَى عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ يَسْأَلُهُ عَنْ ذَلِكَ فَكَتَبَ عُمَرُ: إِنْ أَدَّى إِلَيْكَ مَا كَانَ يُؤَدِّي إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم مِنْ عُشُورِ نَحْلِهِ، فَاحْمِ لَهُ سَلَبَةَ، وَإِلاَّ فَإِنَّمَا هُوَ ذُبَابُ غَيْثٍ يَأْكُلُهُ مَنْ يَشَاءُ»

I said: O Messenger of Allah, I have bees. He said then pay a tenth. I said: O Messenger of Allah, protect their mountains for me, so he did”, and what was narrated from ‘Amru b. Shu’ayb from his father from his grandfather who said: “Hilal, a man from the tribe of Banu Mat'an, brought a tenth of honey which he possessed in beehives to the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم . He asked him (the apostle of Allah) to give the wood known as Salabah as a protected (or restricted) land. The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم gave him that wood as a protected land. When Umar Ibn Al-Khattab succeeded, Sufyan Ibn Wahb wrote to Umar asking him about this wood. Umar Ibn Al-Khattab wrote to him: If he (Hilal) pays you the tithe on honey what he used to pay to the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم   leave the protected land of Salabah in his possession; otherwise those bees are like those of any wood; anyone can take the honey as he likes.. These are not suitable as evidence that Zakah is taken from honey. This is because the chain of the narration of Abu Sayyarah is disconnected (Munqati’), as it is from Sulayman b. Musa from Abu Sayyaara and Bukhari said: “Sulaiman did not meet anyone from the companions and there is nothing regarding Zakah on honey that is authentic”. The narration of ‘Amru b. Shu’ayb is reported by Abu Dawud and Al-Nasa’i, and Ibn ‘Abd Al-Barr considered it Hasan in Al-Istidhkar, but despite that it does not indicate that Zakah is obliged upon honey, since he paid it voluntarily and the valley was kept for him in exchange, as proven by the evidence of what Umar (ra) did having understood the reason and, therefore, made a similar order. This is supported by what is reported from Sa’d b. Abu Dhi’ab:

«أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم اسْتَعْمَلَهُ عَلَى قَوْمِهِ وَأَنَّهُ قَالَ لَهُمْ: أَدُّوُا العُشْرَ فِي الْعَسَلِ»

That the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم appointed him over his people and he said to them: Give a tenth of the honey”, which is considered a weak narration by Bukhari and Al-Azdi and others, and any how Shafi’i said: “And Sa’ad Bin Abi Dhi’ab told what was indicated that the:

«أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم لَمْ يَأْمُرْهُ فِيهِ بِشَيْءٍ، وَأَنَّهُ شَيْءٌ رَآهُ هُوَ فَتَطَوَّعَ لَهُ بِهِ قَوْمُهُ»

Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم did not order him with that, but rather it was something he thought of and voluntarily suggested it to his people”. All of this indicates that there is no Zakah upon honey and even the narrations which are used as evidence indicate that there was no obligatory Zakah upon it.

All of these texts indicate that no Zakah is taken from anything which the Shari’ah has not explained the Nisab for. This is because the texts explain the Nisab, and the amount which should be taken, and, therefore, Zakah is obligatory upon it. And the question would be, upon what basis can Zakah be taken from anything which has no text related to it? And upon what basis could a specific amount be taken from it? This is especially the case since the texts which explained the Nisab and the amount due did not come with an Illah, and so it would not be correct to do Qiyas upon them (in other words, to use them as a basis for analogy). Above that, there are other texts which have explained the specific things that Zakah is due upon, and didn’t stop there but rather restricted Zakah to these things, and used more than one style to demonstrate this restriction. This alone indicates that Zakah is not taken from anything other than the specific items which are mentioned in the texts, and nothing at all is due from anything else.

It might be argued that the text in the Quran and Sunnah made the obligation of Zakah general upon all wealth, since in the Quran He (swt) said:

(( خُذْ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ صَدَقَةً ))

Take, [O, Muhammad], from their wealth a charity.” (TMQ 9:103):

(( وَالَّذِينَ فِي أَمْوَالِهِمْ حَقٌّ مَعْلُومٌ (24) ))

And those within whose wealth is a known right. ” (TMQ 70:24) and in the narration:

«أعلمهم أن الله افترض عليهم صدقة في أموالهم»

Teach them that Allah made Sadaqah (Zakah) from their property obligatory upon them” (agreed upon from Ibn ‘Abbas), and this encompasses all the categories of wealth, and so Zakah is binding upon all of them except from anything the Shari’ah made as an exception, and the Shari’ah did not make anything an exception except for horses and slaves due to his صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم words:

«لَيْسَ عَلَى الْمُسْلِمِ صَدَقَةٌ فِي عَبْدِهِ وَلا فِي فَرَسِهِ»

No Sadaqah (Zakah) is to be paid on one’s horse (that he rides) or one’s slave(agreed upon from Abu Hurayrah).

The response is that this text is summarised (Mujmal) and requires clarification, and the Sunnah clarified it comprehensively like interest, since the prohibition regarding interest came summarised and the Sunnah explained it, so it cannot be said that interest is prohibited in everything since the prohibition was general, rather it is said that interest is prohibited in usurious wealth which the Sunnah came and explained since the text was summarised and the Sunnah explained it, and so there is no interest in anything else. In the same manner it cannot be said that Zakah is obligatory in everything since the order for it came in a general form, but rather it is said that Zakah is obligatory in the wealth which the Sunnah came and explained the Nisab of the Zakah for, and in that manner explained the categories of wealth that Zakah is taken from. This is since Allah (swt) gave a general summarised order for Zakah, and did not explain the amount which should be taken nor when it should be taken, and so the narrations came and explained the obligatory amounts due, the Nisab after which these amounts become due, when they would be obligatory, and whether it would become due simply due to it being held such as with crops or after a period of time such as with gold and silver. Consequently Zakah is takenaccording to this explanation from the Sunnah, and so the wealth which the Sunnah explained how and when Zakah is taken from is the wealth upon which Zakah is due, and anything else has no Zakah due upon it. Rather, it cannot be taken from it in any way since the time of when it would be due is not known, or the amount to be taken, or the Nisab after which it would become due, and so it would not be at all possible to take from anything other than what the Shari’ah explained.

There are clear texts reported in these issues: it is related from Abu Hurayrah who said:

«مَا مِنْ صَاحِبِ ذَهَبٍ وَلا فِضَّةٍ لا يُؤَدِّي مِنْهَا حَقَّهَا، إِلاَّ إِذَا كَانَ يَوْمُ الْقِيَامَةِ، صُفِّحَتْ لَهُ صَفَائِحُ مِنْ نَارٍ، فَأُحْمِيَ عَلَيْهَا فِي نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ، فَيُكْوَى بِهَا جَبِينُهُ وَجَبْهَتُهُ وَظَهْرُهُ...»

The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said: “Any person who possesses gold or silver and does not pay what is due on it (i.e., the Zakah); on the Day of Resurrection, sheets of silver and gold would be heated for him in the fire of Hell and with them his flank, forehead and back will be branded.” (agreed upon), and he صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:

«لَيْسَ فِيمَا دُونَ خَمْسِ أَوَاقٍ مِنْ الْوَرِقِ صَدَقَةٌ»

There is no Sadaqah on less than five Dirham” (reported by Muslim from Jabir), and it is related from Ali Bin Abi Talib (ra) from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم :

«إِذَا كَانَتْ لَكَ مِائَتَا دِرْهَمٍ وَحَالَ عَلَيْهَا الْحَوْلُ فَفِيهَا خَمْسَةُ دَرَاهِمَ، وَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكَ شَيْءٌ، يَعْنِي فِي الذَّهَبِ، حَتَّى يَكُونَ لَكَ عِشْرُونَ دِينَاراً، فَإِذَا كَانَ لَكَ عِشْرُونَ دِينَارًا وَحَالَ عَلَيْهَا الْحَوْلُ فَفِيهَا نِصْفُ دِينَارٍ»

If you have two hundred Dirham for a year, then five Dirham are due from them, and there is nothing upon you (in terms of gold) until you have twenty Dinar, so if you have twenty Dinar for a year then half a Dinar is due” (reported by Abu Dawud and it is Hasan). And the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:

«مَا مِنْ صَاحِبِ إِبِلٍ وَلا بَقَرٍ وَلا غَنَمٍ لا يُؤَدِّي زَكَاتَهَا إِلا جَاءَتْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ أَعْظَمَ مَا كَانَتْ وَأَسْمَنَهُ تَنْطَحُهُ بِقُرُونِهَا وَتَطَؤُهُ بِأَظْلافِهَا»

There is no owner of camels, cattle or sheep who does not give Zakah on them, but they will come on the Day of Resurrection as big and fast as they ever were, and will gore him with their horns and trample him with their hooves.” (agreed upon from Abu Hurayrah), and he صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:

«وَالعُشْرُ فِي: التَّمْرِ وَالزَّبِيبِ وَالْحِنْطَةِ وَالشَّعِيرِ»

A tenth is due on dates, raisins, wheat and barley” (reported by Al-Daraqutni in his Sunan from ‘Amru b. Shu’ayb from his father and from his grandfather). And it is reported from the same chain:

«إِنَّمَا سَنَّ رَسُولُ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم الزَّكَاةَ فِي: الْحِنْطَةِ وَالشَّعِيرِ وَالتَّمْرِ وَالزَّبِيبِ»

The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم only made Zakah in wheat, barley, dates and raisins”. And from Mu’adh Bin Jabal when he was sent to Yemen by the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم who said to him:

«خُذْ الْحَبَّ مِنْ الْحَبِّ، وَالشَّاةَ مِنْ الْغَنَمِ، وَالْبَعِيرَ مِنْ الإِبِلِ، وَالْبَقَرَةَ مِنْ الْبَقَرِ»

Take grains from grains, sheep from sheep, camels from camels and cows from cows.” (reported by Abu Dawud, Ibn Maja and Al-Daraqutni).

Accordingly, Zakah is only obligatory upon the wealth which the text came and explained, and is not obligatory upon anything else at all.

As for the claim that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم made certain wealth as an exception from Zakah, which are the slaves and horses, and this means that anything which was not made an exception has Zakah due upon it, is a false claim, since the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم did not make specific wealth as an exception from Zakah as he صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم did not say that Zakah is obligatory upon all wealth except for slaves and horses. Rather the order regarding Zakah came summarised (Mujmal) and the texts clarified in detail what was summarised, and so the issue of exception is not present at all. As for the story of the slaves and horses, the Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم did not make them as an exception but rather he simply informed that there is no Zakah due upon them; Al-Bukhari reported from Abu Hurayrah who said:

«لَيْسَ عَلَى الْمُسْلِمِ فِي فَرَسِهِ وَغُلاَمِهِ صَدَقَةٌ»

The Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said: “There is no Zakah either on a horse or a slave belonging to a Muslim., and in another chain from Abu Hurayrah from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم who said:

«لَيْسَ عَلَى الْمُسْلِمِ صَدَقَةٌ فِي عَبْدِهِ وَلا فِي فَرَسِهِ»

The Muslim does not have to pay Sadaqah on his slave or his horse., and from Ali (ra) who said:

«قَدْ عَفَوْتُ لَكُمْ عَنْ صَدَقَةِ الْخَيْلِ وَالرَّقِيقِ، فَهَاتُوا صَدَقَةَ...»

The Messenger of Allah said: “I have exempted you from having to pay Zakah on horses and slaves, bring Zakah of …” (reported by Ahmad and the authors of the Sunan, and Al-Hafiz said its chain is Hasan), and this is not an exception rather it is only information, and, therefore, it is not wealth which has been made as an exception from Zakah.

In the same manner there is a text which mentions that there is no Zakah on donkeys; Abu Hurayrah said:

(( فَمَنْ يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْرًا يَرَهُ (7) وَمَنْ يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ شَرًّا يَرَهُ (8) ))

The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم was asked about Zakah upon donkeys, and he said: “Nothing has come to me with respect to it except this verse – : “So whoever does an atom's weight of good will see it, And whoever does an atom's weight of evil will see it.(TMQ 99:7)(agreed upon), and he صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم was also asked about horses as mentioned in the narration of Abu Hurayrah. This was not an exception, rather it was simply an answer to a question, and this cannot be considered as the Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم making slaves, horses and donkeys as exceptions to wealth and so saying: “there is no Zakah upon these and Zakah has been made obligatory upon all wealth”, since this completely contradicts the Shari’ah texts on the issue. There is no exception reported in the texts at all, because exception occurs if there is a general text regarding a rule, and in the same text, in other words, the same sentence, there is an exception made to that through one of the instruments or styles used to make an exception. For example: “the people came except Muhammad”, or: “Zakah has been obligated upon everything except for horses and slaves”. Or it could occur if there was a general text, and another specific text came which specified the generality of the first text and was thereby an exception from it, and this is not present in the texts regarding the horses, slaves and donkeys because the text regarding Zakah was a summarised (Mujmal) text and the Sunnah came and explained it. Additionally the narration regarding the horses and slaves did not come as a general sentence which was then made an exception to through the use of one of the instruments or styles of making exceptions, but it was rather a separate sentence and is, therefore, considered to be information and not an exception.

As for Zakah upon trade, the evidence for its obligation is the narration and the Ijma’ of the companions: Abu Dawud reported by his chain from Sumura Bin Jundub who said:

«أَمَّا بَعْدُ، فَإِنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم كَانَ يَأْمُرُنَا أَنْ نُخْرِجَ الصَّدَقَةَ مِنْ الَّذِي نُعِدُّ لِلْبَيْعِ»

The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم used to command us to pay the Zakah upon what we had prepared for sale” (Al-Hafiz said in Bulugh Al-Muram that Abu Dawud reported it and its chain has some weakness). And from ‘Amru b. Hamas from his father who said: “Omar commanded me and said: pay the Zakah on your propert, and so I said: I have no property other than pipes and condiment. So he said: value them and then pay the Zakah upon them” (reported by Ahmad, Al-Shafi’i and others). These and similar stories to this spread and no one amongst the companions rebuked it and so, therefore, it is considered to be an Ijma’. There is no Zakah due upon pipes and condiment themselves, and they are not normally possessed in such a big quantity such that there would Zakah due upon them unless they were amassed for trade, and so this is an indication that they were prepared for trading.

As for the third issue, which is the taking of Zakah from every owner, this means that Zakah is taken from every Muslim, male or female, sane or insane, mature or prepubescent. With respect to male and female, this is apparent from the generality of the texts, since Zakah is a right connected to the wealth and it is the single duty due from the wealth from the angle of it being wealth, which is why Allah (swt) said:

(( خُذْ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ صَدَقَةً )) [التوبة 103]، ((وَالَّذِينَ فِي أَمْوَالِهِمْ حَقٌّ ))

Take, [O, Muhammad], from their wealth a charity.(TMQ 9:103)and: “And those within whose wealth is a known right.” (TMQ 70:24)and in the narration:

«فَأَعْلِمْهُمْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ افْتَرَضَ عَلَيْهِمْ صَدَقَةً فِي أَمْوَالِهِمْ»

then teach them that Allah has obligated Sadaqah (Zakah) upon their property” (agreed upon from Ibn ‘Abbas), and in the agreed upon narration which came as an answer to the question of the Bedouin:

«...فَإِذَا هُوَ يَسْأَلُ عَنْ الإِسْلامِ... إلى أن قال: وَذَكَرَ لَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم الزَّكَاةَ، قَالَ: هَلْ عَلَيَّ غَيْرُهَا؟ قَالَ: لا، إِلا أَنْ تَطَوَّعَ»

he was asking about Islam…till he said: And the Messenger of Allah (saw) told him about the Zakah (obligatory charity). The inquirer asked: "Am I obliged to pay anything besides this?" The Messenger of Allah (saw) said, "No, but whatever you pay voluntarily out of your own free will. which indicate that the obligation is upon the wealth from the aspect of it being wealth, without any consideration as to whether the owner was legally responsible or not. Allah (swt) made many obligations upon the Muslim who owned wealth in his characteristic as someone who possessed wealth, or in other words, was rich, such as the obligation of Jihad with wealth, and finding the hungry, and paying expenses, and so on, but He (swt) did not obligate anything upon the wealth which was owned by Muslims except for one right which is Zakah, and restricted the obligatory rights over wealth to it and forbade any other right to be imposed upon it. This indicates that the obligation is empowered over the wealth in its aspect as wealth without looking at whether the owner was legally responsible or not, and this is a proof that wealth is what has Zakah taken from it, even if its owner was not legally responsible, in other words, even if they were a child or insane. Additionally, when Allah (swt) ordained obligations upon the Muslim, in his capacity as an owner of wealth, in other words, rights connected to wealth, they were obligated upon the Muslim generally irrespective of whether they were legally responsible or not, such as paying upkeep for close relatives and wives, and any criminal penalties or fines, and paying the value of anything which they destroyed, and so all of these are obligatory upon the child and the insane since they are connected to the wealth, and the Zakah is the same since it is a right connected to wealth. Above and beyond that, the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:

«مَنْ وَلِيَ يَتِيمًا لَهُ مَالٌ فَلْيَتَّجِرْ فِيهِ، وَلا يَتْرُكْهُ حَتَّى تَأْكُلَهُ الصَّدَقَةُ»

One who becomes the guardian of an orphan, who owns property, must trade on his behalf and not leave it (saved and unused) until it is all eaten up by Zakah (which is paid yearly),in other words, the Zakah, reported by Al-Tirmidhi and Al-Daraqutni fromAmrf Bin Shu’ayb from his father from his grandfather ‘Abd Allah b. ‘Amru, and even though Al-Muthna b. Al-Sabah, who is differed over, is in the chain, it is also reported from ‘Amru b. Shu’ayb to Umar Bin Al-Khattab (ra) as a Mawquf narration, and analogy (Qiyas) is made with the insane on the basis that both are not legally responsible, and so whatever is obligatory upon the child who is not legally responsible is similarly obligatory upon the insane person.

As for the fourth issue, which is the fact that it is placed in a special section in the Bayt Al-Mal, this is because whatever wealth is due to the Muslims, and the owner is not specified, then it is from the rights of the Bayt Al-Mal. And every right which is necessary to be spent upon the interests and affairs of the Muslims, is a right upon the Bayt Al-Mal. Zakah, although it is from what the Muslims deserve, however its owner has been specified by the text of the Legislator (swt), since the Shari’ah specified its owner at the time it specified the aspects which it should be spent upon, and limited it to those eight areas alone. Allah (swt) said:

(( إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقَاتُ لِلْفُقَرَاءِ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَالْعَامِلِينَ عَلَيْهَا وَالْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَالْغَارِمِينَ وَفِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَاِبْنِ السَّبِيلِ ))

Zakah expenditures are only for the poor and for the needy and for those employed to collect [Zakah] and for bringing hearts together [for Islam] and for freeing captives [or slaves] and for those in debt and for the cause of Allah and for the [stranded] traveller.” (TMQ 9:60), and as long as it has been restricted to these aspects then it is not from the rights of the Bayt Al-Mal, since it is wealth for specific aspects which is not permitted to be spent anywhere else, and the Bayt Al-Mal is simply the place for safekeeping it, but it is not considered part of the rights of the Bayt Al-Mal. Rather the Bayt Al-Mal is simply the place for storing the wealth because it is paid to the Khalifah and he is the one who distributes it; it is reported from Anas that a man said to the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم :

«إِذَا أَدَّيْتُ الزَّكَاةَ إِلَى رَسُولِكَ فَقَدْ بَرِئْتُ مِنْهَا إِلَى اللهِ وَرَسُولِهِ؟ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: نَعَمْ، إِذَا أَدَّيْتَهَا إِلَى رَسُولِي فَقَدْ بَرِئْتَ مِنْهَا، فَلَكَ أَجْرُهَا، وَإِثْمُهَا عَلَى مَنْ بَدَّلَهَا»

If I gave Zakah to your Messenger then am I absolved with Allah and His Messenger”, He said: “Yes, if you gave it to my Messenger then you are free of blame with Allah and His Messenger, so you have its reward, and its sin is on the one who alters it” (reported by Ahmad and authenticated by Al-Haythami and Al-Zayn). And it is reported from Bashir b. Al-Khasasiyah who said:

«قُلْنَا: يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ، إِنَّ قَوْماً مِنْ أَهْلِ الصَّدَقَةِ يَعْتَدُونَ عَلَيْنَا، أَفَنَكْتُمُ مِنْ أَمْوَالِنَا بِقَدْرِ مَا يَعْتَدُونَ عَلَيْنَا؟ فَقَالَ: لا»

We said: O Messenger of Allah, some people who collect Zakah collect more than is due, can we hide our property to that proportion? He said: no.” (reported by Abu Dawud and ‘Abd Al-Razzaq, and Al-Mundhiri did not comment upon it). So this is proof that the Zakah is paid to the Khalifah and he is the one who sends his governors and workers to gather it, and then it is spent upon the specified aspects according to his opinion and Ijtihad, which is why the place for safekeeping it is the Bayt Al-Mal. However this is simply to store the Zakah since it cannot be spent anywhere except upon the areas specified, and, therefore, it is placed in a special section. So even though Zakah is from the income of the Bayt Al-Mal since it is paid to the Khalifah, and people are punished if they defer paying it, it is not spent unrestrictedly according to his opinion and Ijtihad, but rather his opinion and Ijtihad is restricted within the aspects, or restricted to those deserving of Zakah alone and nothing else.

As for the fifth issue: the fact that it is not spent except upon the specific individuals whose characteristics and numbers have been defined, is because Allah (swt) specified whom Zakah can be given to and limited its spending to those whom He (swt) had defined; Allah (swt) said:

(( إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقَاتُ لِلْفُقَرَاءِ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَالْعَامِلِينَ عَلَيْهَا وَالْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَالْغَارِمِينَ وَفِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَاِبْنِ السَّبِيلِ ))

Zakah expenditures are only for the poor and for the needy and for those employed to collect [Zakah] and for bringing hearts together [for Islam] and for freeing captives [or slaves] and for those in debt and for the cause of Allah and for the [stranded] traveller.” (TMQ 9:60). So it has been limited by the word: “Only (Innama)” which is from the styles of restriction, and, therefore, it is not permitted to spend it on anyone other than them at all, which is why the Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:

«لا تَحِلُّ الصَّدَقَةُ لِغَنِيٍّ، وَلا لِذِي مِرَّةٍ سَوِيٍّ»

It is not permissible to give charity to a rich man (or one who is independent of means) or to one who is strong and healthy” reported by Al-Tirmidhi from ‘Abd Allah b. ‘Amru, and he said it was Hasan, and Al-Hakim reported it from Abu Hurayrah and he authenticated it. And he صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said regarding Zakah:

«وَلا حَظَّ فِيهَا لِغَنِيٍّ، وَلا لِقَوِيٍّ مُكْتَسِبٍ»

and no rich man or one who is strong and able to earn has a share of Zakah.reported by Ahmad and Abu Dawud and Al-Nasa’i and Al-Dhahabi said that the narration is authentic and its narrators are trustworthy.

So this is evidence that it is not spent on anything at all outside of the mentioned eight categories.

Some articles of the Constitution

The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 98: Employment in the administrative system

Article 98: Anyone who carries citizenship, and is competent, whether male or female, Muslim or non-Muslim, can be appointed as a manager for an administration, a department, or a division, and to be a civil servant in it. more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State

Article 110: Shura (consultation ) and the adoption of decisions

Article 110: The issues which fall under consultation (Shura) are decided by the opinion of the majority without considering whether it is correct or incorrect. As for any other issues which fall under Shura, the correct opinion is sought without any consideration given to the majority or minority. more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 175: Islamic culture is mandatory in all levels of education

Article 175: The Islamic culture must be taught at all levels of education. In higher education, departments should be assigned to the various Islamic disciplines as will be done with medicine, engineering, physics and anything similar. more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State

Article 20: Right and duty to accountable the rulers

Article 20: Accounting of the rulers by Muslims is one of their rights and an obligation of sufficiency upon them. The non-Muslim subjects have the right to voice complaint regarding the ruler’s injustice towards them or misapplication of the rules of Islam upon them. more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 64: Banners and flags of the army

Article 64: The Army is given banners and flags and the Head of State (the Khalifah) gives the banners to whomever he appoints to lead the Army, whereas the flags are provided by the brigadiers. more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 161: Foreign trade is assessed on the basis of the citizenship

Article 161: Foreign trade is assessed on the basis of the citizenship of the trader and not the origin of the goods. Merchants from countries in a state of war with the State are prevented from trading in the State, unless given a special permission for the merchant or the goods. Merchants from countries that have treaties with the State are treated according to the terms of the treaties.… more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 120: Marital life

Article 120: Marital life is one of tranquillity; and the couple should live together as companions. The guardianship (Qawwamah) of the husband over the wife is a guardianship of care and not ruling. It has been made obligatory for her to obey him, and obligatory upon him to financially support her according to the expected standard of living of one like her. more

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