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Constitution of the Caliphate State for Android

Constitution of the Caliphate State / Economic System

Article 151: Revenues of the Bayt Al-Mal

The Constitution of the Caliphate State, Article 151: Money taken at the borders of the State from custom duties, income derived from public or State property, inheritance for which there is no inheritor and the assets of the apostates are all considered to be part of the revenue of the Bayt Al-Mal.

 

The evidence for the article is what has been reported from Umar (ra) regarding the Muslims taking from the traders of those they were at war with according to what they took from the Muslim traders; it is reported by Ibn Abu Shayba in Al-Musannaf: “from Abu Mijliz – that Omar sent Uthman Bin Hanif who imposed upon the wealth of people of Dhimma that they differed over, a tax of one Dirham from every twenty and wrote to Omar who was content and gave him permission, and he said Omar: How much should we take from the people of war if they come to us? He said: How much do they take from you if you go to them? They said: A tenth. He said: So take the same from them”.

Abu ‘Ubayd reported in Al-Amwal from ‘Abd alRahman Bin Ma’qal who said: I asked Ziyaad Bin Hudair about whom they would take a tenth from. He said: “We didn’t use to take a tenth from a Muslim, nor from someone who had a covenant. I said: So who did you take the tenth from? He said: The disbelievers from the merchants of war, so we used to take from them as they used to take from us”. This is an evidence that custom duties which are taken from non-subjects of the State are considered to be from the sources of income of the Bayt Al-Mal.

This is with respect to the taxes, as for the wealth which is produced by public property, the Khalifah has been made the representative of the Muslims in managing their interests, and so whatever is from the public wealth which all of the individual citizens are able to enjoy, then they are left to them to use as they please, such as rivers and well water which could be used for irrigation. But if the usage of some prevents others, such as steel minerals, which leads to the one who is capable taking it while the one incapable gets nothing of it, then the Khalifah takes responsibility for managing this resource and extracting whatever is there in order to enable all the citizens to benefit from its sale. Accordingly, this wealth is placed in the Bayt Al-Mal and is considered to be from its sources of income because the Khalifah is the one who manages it. However, it is not spent according to the opinion and Ijtihad of the Khalifah in everything, since it is for the general citizens, and his opinion and Ijtihad is regarding the equality and inequality in expenditure, and not upon who it is paid for, since it is not from the State property.

And as for the wealth which has no inheritor for it, it is placed in the Bayt Al-Mal. If an inheritor is found then it is given to them, and if not then it is considered as the property of the Bayt Al-Mal because the Bayt Al-Mal is the inheritor of anyone who has no inheritor, since the Muslims used to give the inheritance of the one who had no inheritor to the Messenger  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم , and he  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم used to ask whether the person had any progeny or relatives? And (if he didn’t have any) then he  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم would order it to be given to whomever he considered, which indicates that it is a source of income for the Bayt Al-Mal.

As for the wealth of the apostates, this is considered to be booty for the Muslims and is placed in the Bayt Al-Mal in the register of war spoils and Kharaj, and is spent upon what they are used for. His wealth is not inherited, since if one of the couple apostatised before consummating the marriage the contract is voided immediately and so there is no inheritance between them, and if the apostasy occurred after consummation then the marriage contract between them is voided, and if either of them die neither of them inherits from the other, since one of them is Muslim and the other a disbeliever. Similarly if the apostate was from those who inherit from a Muslim who died, the apostate does not inherit since he is a disbeliever and the one who left the inheritance is a Muslim, and a disbeliever does not inherit from a Muslim. Accordingly, his share of the remainder of the inheritance, if there were other inheritors, and if not then all of it is considered as booty for the Muslims, and it is placed in the Bayt Al-Mal. If the apostate died and he had inheritors from his sons, father, mother or siblings who were Muslim, they do not inherit from him, since a Muslim does not inherit from a disbeliever and it is all considered to be booty for the Muslims and is placed in the Bayt Al-Mal for the Muslims. From Usamah b. Zayd who said: the Messenger of Allah said:

«لا يَرِثُ الْمُسْلِمُ الْكَافِرَ، وَلا يَرِثُ الْكَافِرُ الْمُسْلِمَ»

A Muslim cannot be the heir of a disbeliever, nor can a disbeliever be the heir of a Muslim.(agreed upon). And ‘Abd Allah b. Umar said that the Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:

«لا يَتَوَارَثُ أَهْلُ مِلَّتَيْنِ»

people of two different religions would not inherit from one another.” (reported by Ahmad and Abu Dawud). Similarly if all of his inheritors apostasise with him, all of their wealth has no sanctity and it becomes booty for the Muslims, and they do not inherit from each other.

Some articles of the Constitution

The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 183: Political means and political methods

Article 183: Ends do not justify means, because the method is integral to the thought. Thus, the obligation and the permitted cannot be attained by performing a forbidden action. Political means must not contradict the political methods. more
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Article 138: Property of Factories

Article 138: Factories by their nature are private property. However, they follow the rule of the product that they are producing. If the product is private property then the factory is considered to be private property, such as textile factories. If the product is public property then the factory is considered public property, such as factories for iron ore production. more
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Article 133: Tithed land (‘Ushriyyah), taxed land (Kharajiyyah)

Article 133: Tithed land (‘Ushriyyah) constitutes land within the Arabian Peninsula and land whose owners had embraced Islam, whilst possessing the land, before the Islamic State conquered them by Jihad. Taxed land (Kharajiyyah) is all land, other than the Arabian Peninsula, which was opened by jihad, whether through war or peace treaties. The ‘Ushriyyah land, together with its benefits, is owned… more
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Article 190: Provisions of the treaties

Article 190:All military treaties and pacts (with other States) are completely prohibited, along with anything of their type, or connected to them such as political treaties and agreements covering the leasing of military bases and airfields. It is permitted to conclude good neighbour relations, economic, commercial, financial, cultural and armistice treaties. more
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Article 174: Empirical- and the cultural sciences

Article 174: A distinction should be drawn between the empirical sciences such as mathematics on the one hand and the cultural sciences on the other. The empirical sciences and all that is related to them are taught according to the need and are not restricted to any stage of education. As for the cultural sciences, they are taught at the primary and secondary levels according to a specific… more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State

Article 22: Principles of the ruling system

Article 22: The ruling system is built upon four principles which are: Sovereignty is for the Shari’ah rather than fort the people The authority is for the Ummah To appoint a single Khalifah is an obligation upon the Muslims The Khalifah alone has the right to adopt Shari’ah rules, so he is the one who enacts the constitution and the rest of the laws more
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Article 16: The system of ruling unitary, not a federal

Article 16: The system of ruling is a unitary system and not a federal system. more

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