Constitution of the Caliphate State / Economic System
- Category: Economic System §123-169
Article 153: The State guarantees to create work for all of those who carry its citizenship.
The evidences for this article is that it is part of the generality of the words of the Prophet :
«الإِمَامُ رَاعٍ وَهُوَ وَمَسْؤُولٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ»
“The Imam is a guardian and he is responsible for his subjects” (reported by Al-Bukhari from ‘Abd Allah b. Umar), and from the most important issues of managing the affairs is creating work for those who are capable but do not find any. The fact that maintenance of the poor person who has no relative capable of maintaining them is upon the State is due to his words:
«مَنْ تَرَكَ مَالاً فَلِوَرَثَتِهِ، وَمَنْ تَرَكَ كَلاًّ فَإِلَيْنَا»
“If somebody (dies among the Muslims) leaving some property, the property will go to his heirs; and if he leaves dependants (orphans), we will take care of them.” (agreed upon from Abu Hurayrah). And in the narration of Abu Hurayrah:
« وَمَنْ تَرَكَ مَالاً فَلْيَرِثْهُ عَصَبَتُهُ مَنْ كَانُوا، وَمَنْ تَرَكَ دَيْناً أَوْ ضَيَاعاً فَلْيَأْتِنِي فَأَنَا مَوْلاَهُ»
“If a believer leaves some property then his relatives will inherit that property; but if he is in debt or he leaves poor children, let those (creditors and children) come to me, for them I am his sponsor (surely)” (agreed upon, and the wording is from Al-Bukhari).
The State ought to secure jobs for those whom she is bound to spend on for their living. Ibn Maja reported from Anas Bin Malik who said:
«أَنَّ رَجُلاً مِنْ الأَنْصَارِ جَاءَ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ يَسْأَلُهُ فَقَالَ: لَكَ فِي بَيْتِكَ شَيْءٌ؟ قَالَ: بَلَى، حِلْسٌ نَلْبَسُ بَعْضَهُ وَنَبْسُطُ بَعْضَهُ وَقَدَحٌ نَشْرَبُ فِيهِ الْمَاءَ، قَالَ: ائْتِنِي بِهِمَا، قَالَ: فَأَتَاهُ بِهِمَا، فَأَخَذَهُمَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ بِيَدِهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ: مَنْ يَشْتَرِي هَذَيْنِ؟ فَقَالَ رَجُلٌ: أَنَا آخُذُهُمَا بِدِرْهَمٍ، قَالَ: مَنْ يَزِيدُ عَلَى دِرْهَمٍ مَرَّتَيْنِ أَوْ ثَلاثًا، قَالَ رَجُلٌ: أَنَا آخُذُهُمَا بِدِرْهَمَيْنِ، فَأَعْطَاهُمَا إِيَّاهُ وَأَخَذَ الدِّرْهَمَيْنِ فَأَعْطَاهُمَا الأَنْصَارِيَّ وَقَالَ: اشْتَرِ بِأَحَدِهِمَا طَعَامًا فَانْبِذْهُ إِلَى أَهْلِكَ، وَاشْتَرِ بِالآخَرِ قَدُومًا فَأْتِنِي بِهِ، فَفَعَلَ، فَأَخَذَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ فَشَدَّ فِيهِ عُودًا بِيَدِهِ وَقَالَ: اذْهَبْ فَاحْتَطِبْ وَلا أَرَاكَ خَمْسَةَ عَشَرَ يَوْمًا، فَجَعَلَ يَحْتَطِبُ وَيَبِيعُ، فَجَاءَ وَقَدْ أَصَابَ عَشْرَةَ دَرَاهِمَ، فَقَالَ اشْتَرِ بِبَعْضِهَا طَعَامًا وَبِبَعْضِهَا ثَوْباً، ثُمَّ قَالَ: هَذَا خَيْرٌ لَكَ مِنْ أَنْ تَجِيءَ وَالْمَسْأَلَةُ نُكْتَةٌ فِي وَجْهِكَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ، إِنَّ الْمَسْأَلَةَ لا تَصْلُحُ إِلا لِذِي فَقْرٍ مُدْقِعٍ أَوْ لِذِي غُرْمٍ مُفْظِعٍ أَوْ دَمٍ مُوجِعٍ»
“A man of the Ansar came to the Prophet and begged from him. He (the Prophet) asked: Have you nothing in your house? He replied: Yes, a piece of cloth, a part of which we wear and a part of which we spread (on the ground), and a wooden bowl from which we drink water. He said: Bring them to me. He then brought these articles to him and he (the Prophet) took them in his hands and asked: Who will buy these? A man said: I shall buy them for one Dirham. He said twice or thrice: Who will offer more than one Dirham? A man said: I shall buy them for two Dirhams. He gave these to him and took the two Dirhams and, giving them to the Ansari, he said: Buy food with one of them and hand it to your family, and buy an axe and bring it to me. He then brought it to him. The Messenger of Allah fixed a handle on it with his own hands and said: Go, gather firewood and sell it, and do not let me see you for a fortnight. The man went away and gathered firewood and sold it. When he had earned ten Dirhams, he came to him and bought a garment with some of them and food with the others. The Messenger of Allah then said: This is better for you than that begging should come as a spot on your face on the Day of Judgment. Begging is right only for three people: one who is in grinding poverty, one who is seriously in debt, or one who is responsible for compensation and finds it difficult to pay.” Al-Tirmidhi reported a shorter version that he considered Hasan from Anas Bin Malik:
«أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ بَاعَ حِلْسًا وَقَدَحًا وَقَالَ: مَنْ يَشْتَرِي هَذَا الْحِلْسَ وَالْقَدَحَ؟ فَقَالَ رَجُلٌ: أَخَذْتُهُمَا بِدِرْهَمٍ، فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ مَنْ يَزِيدُ عَلَى دِرْهَمٍ؟ مَنْ يَزِيدُ عَلَى دِرْهَمٍ؟ فَأَعْطَاهُ رَجُلٌ دِرْهَمَيْنِ فَبَاعَهُمَا مِنْهُ»
“That the Messenger of Allah (saw) sold a saddle blanket and a drinking bowl. He (saw) said: "Who will buy saddle blanket and drinking bowl?". So a man said: "I will take them for a Dirham." So the Prophet (saw) said: "Who will give more than a Dirham? Who will give more that a Dirham?" A man agreed to give him two Dirham, so he sold them to him.” And it has been reported in the narration of Ibn Maja that the Messenger said:
«قَالَ: مَنْ يَزِيدُ عَلَى دِرْهَمٍ مَرَّتَيْنِ؟»
“Who will pay more than a Dirham twice?” and in the narration of Al-Tirmidhi the Messenger said:
«مَنْ يَزِيدُ عَلَى دِرْهَمٍ؟ مَنْ يَزِيدُ عَلَى دِرْهَمٍ؟»
“who will pay more than a Dirham? Who will pay more than a Dirham” or in other words, the sale was completed through the auction.
So the Messenger of Allah dealing with employment directly in his capacity as the head of the State means that the State has to provide work for those unemployed.
Above that, the maintenance from the Bayt Al-Mal is due for the one who is incapable, both practically and legally. The one who is practically incapable is the person unable to work. The one who legally has the rule of the one who is incapable though is not practically incapable, is the person able to work but unable to find it, and so he is considered incapable in the eye of the law, and it is obligatory to give him maintenance. Therefore, providing work for the one who is considered incapable from the view of the law is exactly like providing maintenance for the practically incapable person. Additionally, the Shari’ah forbade asking, in other words, begging, and permitted it from the authority in other words, the State; it is reported from Abu Hurayrah who said: “The Messenger of Allah said:
«كَدٌّ يَكُدُّ بِهَا الرَّجُلُ وَجْهَهُ إِلا أَنْ يَسْأَلَ الرَّجُلُ سُلْطَانًا أَوْ فِي أَمْرٍ لا بُدَّ مِنْهُ»
“(Begging) is a cut that a person inflicts upon his face; except for asking a ruler, or under the stress of circumstances from which there is no escape.” reported by Al-Tirmidhi and Al-Nasa’i, Al-Tirmidhi said it is Hasan Sahih, and Ahmad reported something similar which Al-Zayn authenticated, which is proof that it is permitted to ask the authority, in other words, the State, and this means that she is responsible for him and for his maintenance, or securing a job/work for him.