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Constitution of the Caliphate State for Android

Constitution of the Caliphate State / Judiciary

Article 85: Authority of the Muhtasib

The Constitution of the Caliphate State, Article 85: The Muhtasib has the authority to judge upon violations as soon as he learns of them, irrespective of the location and without the need to hold a court session. A number of policemen are put at his disposal to carry out his orders and to execute his verdicts immediately.

 This article clarifies that a judicial court would not be required for the Muhtasib to look into the case at hand, rather he passes the judgement upon the offence the moment he is sure that it took place, and he has the power to judge at any placeand at anytime, whether in the market, in the house, while riding on the back of an animal or in the car, or during the day or night. This is because the evidence that confirms the need to have a judicial court in order to rule upon a case does not apply to the Muhtasib, because the narration which confirmed this condition states

«أَنَّ الْخَصْمَـيْنِ يَقْعُدَانِ بَيْنَ يَدَيِ الْحَكَمِ»

“that the two litigants have to sit in front of the judge” and

«إِذَا جَلَسَ إِلَيْكَ الْخَصْمَانِ»

“when the two litigants sit in front of you” (reported by Ahmad from Ali (ra)). This situation does not exist with the judge of the Hisbah. For there is no plaintiff and no defendant, but rather there is a public right that has been violated or there is a violation of the Shari’ah. Also, when the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم looked into the case of the heap of food, he صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم was walking in the market at the time and the food was displayed for sale. He صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم did not summon the vendor to him, but as soon as he detected the offence he dealt with it on the spot. This indicates that the cases of Hisbah do not require a judicial court.

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Article 24: Authorityand and Sharia implementation.

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Article 131: Private property consisting five means:

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Article 98: Employment in the administrative system

Article 98: Anyone who carries citizenship, and is competent, whether male or female, Muslim or non-Muslim, can be appointed as a manager for an administration, a department, or a division, and to be a civil servant in it. more
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Article 107: Membership of Ummah- and Provincial Council

Article 107: Every citizen who is adult and sane, has the right to be a member of the Ummah Council or the Provincial Council, whether they are male, female, Muslim or non Muslim; the non-Muslim member is restriced to raising complaints regarding the oppression of the rulers or the misapplication of the laws of Islam. more
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Article 46: Scrutiny of actions of delegated assistants

Article 46: It is imperative that the Khalifah scrutinises the actions of the delegated assistants (Tafwid) and their management of the affairs, in order to confirm what was right, and to correct any errors, since the management of the affairs of the Ummah has been delegated to the Khalifah and is decided by his Ijtihad. more
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Article 40: Requires to remove the Caliph

Article 40: The issues which alter the state of the Caliph (Khalifah) and ,therefore, remove him from the Caliphate (Khilafah) are three: If one of the contracting conditionsof the leadership of the State becomes deficient, such as if he apostatises, or commits flagrant sin, or becomes mad, or anything similar. This is because these are from the conditions of contracting, and the conditions of… more
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Article 9: Ijtihad (Diligence) is a duty and right

Article 9: Ijtihad is a duty of sufficiency and every Muslim reserves the right to perform Ijtihad provided he meets all its prerequisites. more