Constitution of the Caliphate State / Judiciary
- Category: Judiciary §75-95
Article 85: The Muhtasib has the authority to judge upon violations as soon as he learns of them, irrespective of the location and without the need to hold a court session. A number of policemen are put at his disposal to carry out his orders and to execute his verdicts immediately.
This article clarifies that a judicial court would not be required for the Muhtasib to look into the case at hand, rather he passes the judgement upon the offence the moment he is sure that it took place, and he has the power to judge at any placeand at anytime, whether in the market, in the house, while riding on the back of an animal or in the car, or during the day or night. This is because the evidence that confirms the need to have a judicial court in order to rule upon a case does not apply to the Muhtasib, because the narration which confirmed this condition states
«أَنَّ الْخَصْمَـيْنِ يَقْعُدَانِ بَيْنَ يَدَيِ الْحَكَمِ»
“that the two litigants have to sit in front of the judge” and
«إِذَا جَلَسَ إِلَيْكَ الْخَصْمَانِ»
“when the two litigants sit in front of you” (reported by Ahmad from Ali (ra)). This situation does not exist with the judge of the Hisbah. For there is no plaintiff and no defendant, but rather there is a public right that has been violated or there is a violation of the Shari’ah. Also, when the Messenger of Allah looked into the case of the heap of food, he was walking in the market at the time and the food was displayed for sale. He did not summon the vendor to him, but as soon as he detected the offence he dealt with it on the spot. This indicates that the cases of Hisbah do not require a judicial court.