Constitution of the Caliphate State / Judiciary
- Category: Judiciary §75-95
Article 82: It is permissible to vary the grades of courts in respect to the type of cases. Some judges may thus be assigned to certain cases of particular grades and other courts to be authorised to judge the other cases.
Its evidence is that the judiciary is delegated by the Khalifah and it is just like proxy, with no difference between them.
The judiciary is one form of proxy, and it is permitted for proxy to be general or specific. Therefore, it would be permitted to appoint a judge to deal in specific cases only, and prohibited from dealing with any other ones. It is permitted to appoint another judge to look into all sorts of cases including those mentioned, even in the same location, or to look into cases other than those mentioned. Therefore, it is permitted to have various levels of courts, and Muslims had this in the first era.
Al-Mawardi wrote in his book entitled Al-AhkamAl-Sultaniyyah: “Abu ‘Abd Allah Al-Zubayr said: ‘The leaders here in Basra used to appoint a judge at the central mosque, and they called him the judge of the mosque. He used to judge in disputes involving amounts below twenty Dinars and two hundred Dirhams, and he used to impose maintenance (Nafaqah). He would not exceed his boundaries and nor the duties entrusted to him’”.The Messenger of Allah delegated others on his behalf in the judiciary in a single case such as when he delegated Amr b. Al-‘As, and he delegated others on his behalf in the judiciary in all of the cases in a particular province as he did when he delegated ‘Ali b. Abi Talib (ra) over the judiciary in Yemen. This indicates that it is permitted to have a specific and general judiciary.