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Constitution of the Caliphate State for Android

Constitution of the Caliphate State / Judiciary

Article 81: The court session

The Constitution of the Caliphate State, Article 81: The judge can only give a verdict in a court session, and any evidence and oaths can only be considered in the court session.

Its evidence is what is narrated by ‘Abd Allah Bin Al-Zubayr who said,

«قَضَى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم أَنَّ الْخَصْمَيْنِ يَقْعُدَانِ بَيْنَ يَدَيِ الْحَكَمِ»

“The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم commanded that the two litigants sit in front of the judge (between his hands) .” (reported by Ahmad and Abu Dawud with the wording from Abu Dawud). This narration explains the form in which judgement is carried out and it is a lawful form in itself. There must be a specific form in which the judicial process be conducted, which is for the two disputing parties to sit before the ruler, and this would be the court session. Therefore, this is a condition for the validity of the judicial process i.e. it is imperative that there be a specific assembly where the judgement is to be conducted for it to be a valid judgement and this would be for the two disputing parties to sit before a ruler. This is supported by the narration of Ali (ra) when the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said to him:

«يَا عَلِيُّ، إِذَا جَلَسَ إِلَيْكَ الْخَصْمَانِ فَلاَ تَقْضِ بَـيْـنَهُمَا حَتَّى تَسْمَعَ مِنَ الآخَرِ كَمَا سَمِعْتَ مِنَ الأَوَّلِ»

“O ‘Ali, When two litigants sit in front of you, do not decide till you hear what the other has to say as you heard what the first had to say.” (reported by Ahmad), which also explains the specific form with his صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم words

إذَا جَلَسَ إِليكَ الخَصْمَانِ

“when two litigants sit in front of you”. So the court session is a condition for the validity of the judgement, and in the same manner it is a condition for the consideration of the oaths, due to the words of the Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم

«وَلَكِنَّ الْيَمِينَ عَلَى الْمُدَّعَى عَلَيْهِ»

“and the oath is upon the one who was accused (defendant)” (agreed upon from Ibn Abbas), and he would not have this attribute, the attribute of being accused, except in a court session. In the same manner, there would be no consideration for evidence unless given in a court session, due to the words of the Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم

«الْبَيِّنَةُ عَلَى الْمُدَّعِي»

“The onus of proof is upon the claimant (plaintiff)” (reported by Al-Bayhaqi with an authentic chain as Ibn Hajar said), and this attribute would not be given except in the court session.

Some articles of the Constitution

The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 125: Guarantee the satisfaction of needs

Article 125: It is obligatory to guarantee that all the basic needs are met for everyone, and are completely met on an individual basis, and to guarantee that every individual is facilitated to satisfy the extra needs (non-essential needs) to the highest level possible. more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 119: Prohibition of all that what threatens to undermine morality or society.

Article 119: It is prohibited for any man or woman to undertake any work which could undermine the morals, or causes corruption in the society. more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 173: Islamic sciences and Arabic in the weekly classes

Article 173: There must be weekly classes in Islamic sciences and Arabic, with the same time and amount allocated as the classes for the rest of the sciences. more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 25: The Khilafah is a contract of choice and consent

Article 25: The Khilafah is a contract of choice and consent, so no one is compelled to accept it, and no one is compelled to choose the one who would undertake it. more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 93: The right to appoint proxy in the disputes and defence

Article 93: Every person has the right to appoint whomsoever he wishes as a proxy (Wakeel) for oneself in the disputes and defence, irrespective of whether he is Muslim or not, male or female. There is no distinction in this matter between the commissioner and the proxy. The proxy is permitted to be appointed for a fee according to the terms agreed upon with the commissioner. more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 94: Permissibility of power of attorney in private and public matters

Article 94: It is permitted for the one who has been vested with a specific responsibility, like a custodian or guardian, or general responsibility such as the Khalifah, ruler, civil servant, Muhtasib, or judge of the Court of Injustice Acts (Madhalim), to appoint a person to his position as a proxy - within the bounds of his authority – in disputes and defence alone, and there is no difference… more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 26: The right to elect the Caliph

Article 26: Every sane, adult Muslim, a male or a female, has the right to elect the leader of the State and to give him the pledge of allegiance; while the non-Muslims do not have such right. more

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