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Constitution of the Caliphate State for Android

Constitution of the Caliphate State / Judiciary

Article 91: The court of justices investigate any case of injustice

 The Constitution of the Caliphate State, Article 91: The Court of Injustice Acts (Madhalim) has the authority to investigate any case of injustice (Madhlamah), irrespective of whether it is related to officials of the State, the Head of State’s deviation from the Shari’ah rules, interpretation of the legislative texts in the constitution, law (Qanun) and other Shari’ah rules within the framework adopted by the Head of State, or the imposition of a tax, or anything else.

Its evidence is that the Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلمconsidered that price-fixing by the ruler was an injustice (Madhlamah), and saw that the arrangements of the State in setting the order of people to irrigate their land from the public water was an issue that could lead to an injustice (Madhlamah). This indicates that the action of the ruler which contradicts the Truth or the Shari’ah rules is an injustice (Madhlamah) if it was connected to the Khalifah (Head of State), because the Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم was the Head of State. And if it was connected to officials of the state it would also be an injustice (Madhlamah), because they are the delegates of the Head of State, and so it would also be connected to the Khalifah because it is connected to the action which they were delegated to and not to themselves as individuals. Accordingly, the narration regarding price fixing is evidence that the violation of the Head of State is an injustice (Madhlamah), and the Court of Injustices (Madhalim) is the entity which has the power to look into the injustices (Madhalim), which is the evidence for the first part of the article.

As for the second part, which is the investigation into a text for the constitution or canons, it is because the constitution is the basic law, and the law is the order of the authority, and so investigating it is investigating the order of the authority. Therefore, it comes under the narration regarding price fixing since it is an investigation of the actions of the Khalifah. Above and beyond that, Allah (swt) said,

{ فَإِنْ تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ }

And if you disagree over anything, refer it to Allah and the Messenger.” (TMQ 4:59), or in other words, if you and those in authority differed over something. Differing over an article of the constitution or law is a difference between the subjects and the people of authority regarding a Shari’ah rule, and so it is referred to Allah (swt) and His Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم – referring to Allah (swt) and His Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلمis referring it to the Court of Injustices (Madhalim), in other words, to the judgement of Allah (swt) and His Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم.

With regards to the third part of the article, the Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلمsaid,

«مَنْ أَخَذْتُ لَهُ مَالاً فَهَذَا مَالِي فَلْيَأْخُذْ مِنْهُ»

“Whoever I took property from, let him take from my property” reported by Abu Ya’la from Al-Fadl Bin Abbas,and he صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said,

«وَإِنِّي لأَرْجُو أَنْ أَلْقَى اللَّهَ وَلا يَطْـلُـبُنِي أَحَدٌ بِمَظْلِمَةٍ ظَلَمْـتُهَا إِيَّاهُ فِي دَمٍ وَلا مَالٍ»

“And I am hopeful that I will meet Allah and none of your are seeking (recompense from) me for injustice (I inflicted) involving blood or wealth,” (reported by Ahmad from Anas), and so the taking of wealth from the subjects by the Khalifah without right is considered an injustice (Madhlamah), and to take the wealth which the Shari’ah did not obligate upon the subjects is an injustice (Madhlamah), and due to this the Court of Injustices (Madhalim)can investigate the taxes since they are wealth taken from the subjects. Its investigation into the taxes is only to see whether that tax is lawfully obliged by Shari’ah upon the Muslims, such as the money taken to feed the needy, which would not be an injustice (Madhlamah), or whether that tax is not obliged by the Shari’ah, such as money taken to build a dam that is not considered essential, which would ,therefore, be an injustice (Madhlamah) that has to be removed. This is why the Court of Injustices (Madhalim) has the power to examine taxes.

Some articles of the Constitution

The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 153: The State shall guarantee to find a work for every citizen

Article 153: The State guarantees to create work for all of those who carry its citizenship. more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 88: Appointment and accountability of the judge of Madhalim

Article 88: The judge of the Court of Injustices (Madhalim) is appointed by the Khalifah, or by the Supreme Judge. His accounting, discipline and removal are done by the Khalifah or by the Supreme Judge if the Khalifah had given him the powers to do so. However he cannot be removed during his investigation of a Madhlamah against the Khalifah, or the executive assistants, or the Supreme Judge;… more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State

Article 76: The supreme judge

Article 76: The Khalifah appoints a supreme judge to the judiciary from the male, adult, free, Muslim, sane, just people who know jurisprudence, and if he was given the power to appoint and remove the Madhalim judge, and had the power of judgement in the Madhalim, then he would have to be a Mujtahid. He would have the power to appoint judges, discipline them, and remove them as part of the… more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 114: Men and women, the rights and duties

Article 114: The woman has been given the same rights as man, and whatever was oblied upon man is also obliged upon the woman, except that which was specified for her or him by the Shari’ah evidences. Accordingly, she has the right to partake in trade, agriculture and industry, and to undertake contracts and transactions, to possess all forms of property, to invest her wealth whether personally… more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 167: The currency of the State is gold and silver

Article 167: The currency of the State is to be restricted to gold and silver, whether minted or not. No other form of currency for the State is permitted. The State can issue something as a substitute for gold or silver provided that the Bayt Al-Mal has the equivalent amount of gold and silver to cover the issued coinage. Thus, the State may issue coinage in its name from brass, bronze or paper… more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 191: Participation in organizations

Article 191: The State is forbidden to belong to any organisation which is based on anything other than Islam or which applies non-Islamic rules. This includes international organisations like the United Nations, the International Court of Justice, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and regional organisations like the Arab League. more
The Constitution of the Caliphate State,

Article 127: Types of property

Article 127: There are three types of property: private, public and State. more

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