Artikel 158: Der Staat soll es jedem Staatsbürger ermöglichen, seine ergänzenden Bedürfnisse zu befriedigen. Er hat: gemäß den ihm zur Verfügung stehenden finanziellen Mitteln: für ein Gleichgewicht in der Gesellschaft zu sorgen. Dabei geht er nach folgenden Gesichtspunkten vor:
- a) Von seinen beweglichen oder unbeweglichen Besitztümern aus dem Schatzhaus vergibt der Staat Güter an die Staatsbürger. Auch aus erworbenen Kriegsgütern und dergleichen werden Vermögenswerte verteilt.
- b) Von dem in seinem Besitz befindlichen bewirtschafteten und nicht bewirtschafteten Land macht der Staat denjenigen, die nicht ausreichend viel Agrarland besitzen, Schenkungen (Iqtaa / Iqṭāʿ). Denjenigen, die Land besitzen und es nicht nutzen, wird nichts gegeben. Bauern, die finanziell nicht in der Lage sind, Landwirtschaft zu betreiben, wird Geld gegeben, damit sie die Fähigkeit zur Bewirtschaftung ihres Agrarlandes erhalten.
- c) Der Staat deckt die Schulden derjenigen, die nicht zu ihrer Rückzahlung in der Lage sind, aus dem Zakat / Zakāt-Geld, den Kriegsgütern und dergleichen ab.
Article 158: The State makes it easier for all the citizens to be able to satisfy their extra (non-essential) needs, and to achieve equality in society in the following way:
- By giving out liquid and fixed assets from the funds of the Bayt Al-Mal, and from the war booties, and anything similar.
- Donating some of its cultivated land to those who have insufficient land. Those who possess land but do not use it are not given more. Those who are unable to cultivate their land are given financial assistance to enable them to cultivate it.
- Giving help to those unable to repay their debts by providing funds from the Zakah, and the war booty, and anything similar.
The evidence for clause: “a” is that Allah (swt) gave the wealth of the Bani Al-Nadir to the Prophet in order for him to give it to whom he wished, and the Messenger gave it specifically to the emigrants rather than the Ansar, and did not give any of the Ansar anything apart from two men from amongst them. The wealth of Bani Al-Nadir was part of the booty, and similar to the booty is the rest of the wealth which is derived from fixed sources such as the land tax, because its expenditure has been placed under the responsibility of the Imam to spend according to his opinion and Ijtihad, except for if the text came explaining where it should be spent such as the expenditures of Zakah, in which case it would not be allowed to spend it except upon whatever the text mentioned. This is only with respect to the fixed sources of income, but as for the wealth collected from the taxes upon the Muslims, it cannot be given out because the text was regarding the booty and analogy upon it is made with anything similar, which are the fixed sources of income for the Bayt Al-Mal.
As for clause: “b” its evidence is the action of the Messenger when dividing the land; it is reported fromAmrf Bin Hareeth who said:
«خَطَّ لِي رَسُولُ اللهِ دَارًا بِالْمَدِينَةِ بِقَوْسٍ وَقَالَ: أَزِيدُكَ أَزِيدُكَ»
“The Messenger of Allah demarcated a house with a bow at Medina for me. He said: I shall give you more. I shall give you more.” (reported by Abu Dawud and he considered it Hasan), and in a narration reported by Ahmad and authenticated by Al-Zayd and also reported by Al-Bayhaqi, with both of them through ‘Alqamah b. Wa’il from his father:
«أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ أَقْطَعَهُ أَرْضًا، قَالَ: فَأَرْسَلَ مَعِي مُعَاوِيَةَ أَنْ أَعْطِهَا إِيَّاهُ، أَوْ قَالَ أَعْلِمْهَا إِيَّاهُ». وقد «سَأَلَ تَمِيمُ الدَّارِيُّ رَسُولَ اللهِ أَنْ يُقْطِعْهُ عَيْنُونَ، البَلَدِ الَّذِي كَانَ مِنْهُ بِالشَّامِ قَبْلَ فَتْحِهِ، وَهُوَ مَدِينَةُ الْخَلِيلِ، فَأَقْطَعَهُ إِيَّاهَا »
“That the Prophet assigned him some land in Hadramout as fief, He said: he sent Mu’awiyah in order to give it to him”. And: “Tamim Al-Dari asked the Messenger of Allah to assign him parts of the land that used to belong to him in Al-Sham before it was conquered, which was the city of Al-Khalil, and so the Messenger granted it to him” (reported by Abu ‘Ubayd in Al-Amwal and Abu Yusuf in Al-Kharaj). Another evidence is what Umar Bin Al-Khattab (ra) did in giving the farmers of Iraq some money from the Bayt Al-Mal in order for them to cultivate their land, and the companions remained silent over it, and so it is considered an Ijma’.
As for clause: “c”, its evidence is what Allah (swt) mentioned regarding the Zakah wealth with His (swt) words:
t(( والْغَارِمِينَ ))
“And for those in debt” (TMQ 9:60), and the words of the Messenger :
«أَنَا أَوْلَى بِكُلِّ مُؤْمِنٍ مِنْ نَفْسِهِ، فَمَنْ تَرَكَ دَيْناً فَعَلَيَّ، وَمَنْ تَرَكَ مَالاً فَلِوَرَثَتِهِ»
“I am nearer to every believer than himself, If he leaves a debt,it is upon me. However, if he leaves an estate, it belongs to his heirs.” (reported by Muslim from Jabir), and the Shari’ah ordained that the wealth from the booty can be spent by the Imam according to his opinion and Ijtihad, which could include repaying the debts.