Artikel 170: Die Grundlage, auf der der Unterricht basiert, muss das islamische Überzeugungsfundament (Aqida / ʿAqīda)sein. Alle Unterrichtsinhalte und -methoden müssen derart ausgestaltet werden, dass sie keinesfalls von dieser Grundlage abweichen.
Article 170:It is imperative that Islamic ‘Aqeedah is the basis for the education curriculum. The syllabi and the ways of teaching are all drafted in a manner that does not deviate from this basis.
It is said linguistically: a man learns knowledge (‘Ilm) – he arrives at the true knowledge, and he learns something – he knows it. In the Al-Muhit dictionary it mentions: “he learnt it is like he heard it as knowledge…and knowledge is in the person, and the man is a scholar, and knowledgeable”. This linguistic meaning is the basis of the meaning of the word knowledge and its derivations, and so the linguistic meaning of the word and its derivations are taken as long as there is no indication present which transfers it to the terminological meaning. What is meant by: “education curriculum” is the linguistic meaning; in other words, every knowledge. The education curriculum is an expression meaning the basis upon which the information which is desired to be learnt is built upon; from one angle this is the subjects which are encompassed by this information and from another angle how this information is going to be given. It therefore encompasses two issues: firstly, the topics for study, and secondly, the ways of teaching. Since the Islamic ‘Aqeedah is the basis of the Muslim’s life, and the basis for the Islamic State, and for the relationships between the Muslims, in other words, the basis for the society, then it is imperative that every piece of information that the Muslim receives is based upon the Islamic ‘Aqeedah. This is irrespective of whether the information was connected to his life, or to his relationship with others, or to the political situation in the State, or connected to any aspect of this life, or what came before it or what comes after it. The Messenger used to first call people to Islam, in other words, for them to embrace the Islamic ‘Aqeedah. Once they embraced Islam, he started teaching them the rules of Islam, and so the ‘Aqeedah was the basis of the teachings of the Messenger to the Muslims. When the sun was eclipsed at the time that his son Ibrahim died, the people said that the sun had eclipsed due to the death of Ibrahim, and so he said to them:
«إِنَّ الشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ آيَتَانِ مِنْ آيَاتِ اللهِ، لا يَنْكَسِفَانِ لِمَوْتِ أَحَدٍ وَلا لِحَيَاتِهِ»
“The Sun and the Moon are two signs from the signs of Allah, they do not eclipse due to anyone’s death or life.” (agreed upon). And so the Prophet made the ‘Aqeedah the basis for the information he gave regarding the solar and lunar eclipses. It is reported by Al-Bukhari from Abu Sa‘id Al-Khudri who said:
«خَرَجْنَا مَعَ رَسُولِ اللهِ فِي غَزْوَةِ بَنِي الْمُصْطَلِقِ، فَأَصَبْنَا سَبْيًا مِنْ سَبْيِ الْعَرَبِ، فَاشْتَهَيْنَا النِّسَاءَ، فَاشْتَدَّتْ عَلَيْنَا الْعُزْبَةُ وَأَحْبَبْنَا الْعَزْلَ، فَسَأَلْنَا رَسُولَ اللهِ فَقَالَ: مَا عَلَيْكُمْ أَنْ لاَ تَفْعَلُوا، مَا مِنْ نَسَمَةٍ كَائِنَةٍ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ إِلاَّ وَهِيَ كَائِنَةٌ»
“We went with Allah's Messenger, in the expedition of Bani Al-Mustaliq and we captured some of the 'Arabs as captives, and the long separation from our wives was pressing us hard and we wanted to practice coitus interruptus. We asked Allah's Messenger (whether it was permissible). He said, " There is nothing upon you if you do it. No soul, (that which Allah has) destined to exist, up to the Day of Resurrection, but will definitely come, into existence."”, and in another narration they asked the Prophet about coitus interruptus and he said:
«مَا عَلَيْكُمْ أَنْ لاَ تَفْعَلُوا، فَإِنَّ اللهَ قَدْ كَتَبَ مَنْ هُوَ خَالِقٌ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ»
“There is nothing upon you if you do it, since Allah has Written whoever He Created until the day of Judgement.” and Muslim reported similar to this. So the Messenger answered their question regarding withdrawal from the angle of whether it prevents pregnancy, and made belief in the Knowledge of Allah (swt) the basis of his answer; in other words, he made the Islamic ‘Aqeedah the basis of his answer. And there are several narrations which indicate that making the Islamic ‘Aqeedah the basis for the education curriculum is an obligatory issue upon the State, and that it is not permitted for it to stray from that at all. However, making the ‘Aqeedah the basis for the education curriculum does not mean that every piece of information emanated from it, because that was not requested by the Shari’ah. This also contradicts the reality, since not every piece of information emanates from the Islamic ‘Aqeedah, since the ‘Aqeedah is specific to beliefs and laws, and has no relationship to anything else. Rather, the meaning of making it the basis for the education curriculum only means that all the information connected to beliefs and laws must emanate from the Islamic ‘Aqeedah, since that is what the ‘Aqeedah came with. As for with respect to any information other than beliefs and laws, the meaning of making the Islamic ‘Aqeedah the basis for it is that these information and laws should be built upon the Islamic ‘Aqeedah; in other words, the Islamic ‘Aqeedah is used as the criterion, so anything that contradicts it is rejected and not believed in, and whatever does not contradict it is permitted to be accepted. So the ‘Aqeedah is the criterion for acceptance and beliefs.
As for the angle of information and learning, there is nothing that prohibits it from being learnt, since the evidences which encourage seeking knowledge are general; the Prophet said:
«طَلَبُ الْعِلْمِ فَرِيضَةٌ»
“Seeking knowledge is a duty”, Al-Zarkashi said in Al-Tadhkirah: “and Al-Hafiz Jamal Al-Dinn Al-Mizzi said: this is reported from many paths such that it reaches the level of a Hasan narration”, and the word: “knowledge” which is general covering all knowledge that is beneficial. And Abu Dawud, Ahmad, Ibn Hibban, and Al-Bayhaqi in Al-Shu‘ab all reported from Kathir b. Qays that he said:
«مَنْ سَلَكَ طَرِيقًا يَطْلُبُ فِيهِ عِلْمًا سَلَكَ اللَّهُ بِهِ طَرِيقًا مِنْ طُرُقِ الْجَنَّةِ»
“Whoever sets out on a path in search of knowledge, Allah sets him on a path from the paths of Paradise” and the word: “knowledge” is general, covering all knowledge that is beneficial.
And in the noble Quran there are ideas and beliefs which contradict Islam such as:
((وَمَا يُهْلِكُنَا إِلَّا الدَّهْرُ))
“And nothing destroys us but time.” (TMQ 45:24) and other such examples, which indicate the permissibility of learning those ideas which contradict the Islamic ‘Aqeedah. Accordingly, to learn information without adopting it or believing in it is permissible and there is nothing wrong with it, but what is prohibited is to adopt the ideas that contradict the Islamic ‘Aqeedah. For example, the idea of Darwin says: people evolved from apes, whereas Allah (swt) said:
((إنَّ مَثَلَ عِيسَى عِنْدَ اللَّهِ كَمَثَلِ آَدَمَ خَلَقَهُ مِنْ تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ قَالَ لَهُ كُنْ فَيَكُونُ (59)))
“Indeed, the example of Jesus to Allah is like that of Adam. He created Him from dust; then He said to him, "Be," and he was.” (TMQ 3:59), and the communist theory of material evolution claims that material evolves eternally, and there is nothing else which developed it, and so there is no God, whereas Allah (swt) says:
((يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا آَمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ))
“O you who have believed, believe in Allah.” (TMQ 4:136),in other words, in His (swt) existence, and He (swt) says:
((الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا))
“He who created the heavens and the earth and what is between them.” (TMQ 25:59). The Book of Pre-Islamic (Jaahili) Literature mentions that the story of Ibrahim was fabricated and that there is no substance in it but rather it was invented by the narrators, even though the story of Ibrahim is mentioned in the Quran and it tells it as a story that occurred in reality and so denying it is a rejection of the Quran. Therefore, these types of information and anything similar are not placed in the education curriculum if that would lead to them being adopted and believed in, and, therefore, they would not be a part of primary education, since this would lead to it being adopted (by the young children learning). In the same manner, if it is made part of the curriculum, it is imperative that its incorrectness be explained and that its ideas are dismantled such that no one would adopt them or believe in them.
In this manner, the Islamic ‘Aqeedah is made the basis for the education curriculum, so it is made the criterion for adopting information from the angle of confirming it as true and believing in it, and not simply from the angle that it is simply information.