Artikel 96: Die Verwaltung der Staatsangelegenheiten und der Interessen der Menschen werden durch Dienstbehörden, Ämter und Verwaltungsstellen übernommen, welche die Staatsangelegenheiten wahrnehmen und den Interessen der Menschen nachkommen.
Article 96: Management of the government’s and people’s affairs is carried out by offices, departments, and administrations, whose task is to ensure the management of the State’s business and the carrying out of the people’s interests.
The Messenger of Allah used to run and carry out the affairs and appoint secretaries for their administration. Thus, the Messenger used to carry out the affairs of the people in Madinah, solve their problems, organise their relations, secure their needs, and direct them to that which suited them. All of these matters are of the administration issues that eased their life from problems or complications:
In matters of education, the Messenger of Allah made the ransom of the disbelieving prisoners of war the teaching of ten Muslims, where the ransom (the teaching of ten Muslims) was in return for spoils (education), which became property of the Muslims. Thus, securing education was one of the Muslims’ affairs.
In healthcare, the Messenger of Allah was given a doctor as a gift, but he assigned him to the Muslims. The fact that the Messenger of Allah received a gift and he did not use it, nor take it, but rather assigned it to the Muslims is evidence that healthcare is one of the interests of the Muslims.
In regards to employment, the Messenger of Allah directed a man to buy a rope and then an axe and collect firewood and sell to the people instead of begging from them, where somebody might give him while another would resist. Thus, solving the problems of work was also one of the Muslims’ interests. Abu Dawud and Ibn Maja narrate:
«أَنَّ رَجُلاً مِنَ الأَنْصَارِ أَتَى النَّبِيَّ يَسْأَلُهُ، فَقَالَ: أَمَا فِي بَيْتِكَ شَيْءٌ؟ قَالَ: بَلَى ... قَالَ: ائْتِنِي بِهِمَا، قَالَ: فَأَتَاهُ بِهِمَا، فَأَخَذَهُمَا رَسُولُ اللهِ بِيَدِهِ وَقَالَ: مَنْ يَشْـتَرِي هَذَيْنِ؟ ... قَالَ رَجُلٌ: أَنَا آخُذُهُمَا بِدِرْهَمَيْنِ، فَأَعْطَاهُمَا إِيَّاهُ وَأَخَذَ الدِّرْهَمَيْنِ، وَأَعْطَاهُمَا الأَنْصَارِيَّ وَقَالَ: اشْـتَرِ بِأَحَدِهِمَا طَعَامًا فَانْبِذْهُ إِلَى أَهْلِكَ، وَاشْتَرِ بِالآخَرِ قَدُومًا فَأْتِنِي بِهِ، فَأَتَاهُ بِهِ، فَشَدَّ فِيهِ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ عُودًا بِيَدِهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ لَهُ: اذْهَبْ فَاحْـتَطِبْ وَبِعْ، وَلا أَرَيَـنَّكَ خَمْسَةَ عَشَرَ يَوْماً، فَذَهَبَ الرَّجُلُ يَحْـتَطِبُ وَيَبِيعُ، فَجَاءَ وَقَدْ أَصَابَ عَشَرَةَ دَرَاهِمَ ...»
“A man of the Ansar came to the Prophet )and begged from him. He (the Prophet) asked: Have you nothing in your house? He replied: Yes…He said: Bring them to me. He then brought these articles to him and he (the Prophet) took them in his hands and asked: Who will buy these? … A man said: I shall buy them for two dirhams. He gave these to him and took the two dirhams and, giving them to the Ansari, he said: Buy food with one of them and hand it to your family, and buy an axe and bring it to me. He then brought it to him. The Messenger of Allah fixed a handle on it with his own hands and said: Go, gather firewood and sell it, and do not let me see you for a fortnight. The man went away and gathered firewood and sold it, and he earned ten dirhams”. Al-Bukhari reported from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah said:
«لَأَنْ يَحْتَطِبَ أَحَدُكُمْ حُزْمَةً عَلَى ظَهْرِهِ خَيْرٌ لَهُ مِنْ أَنْ يَسْأَلَ أَحَدًا فَيُعْطِيَهُ أَوْ يَمْنَعَهُ»
“It is better for anyone of you to carry a bundle of wood on his back and sell it than to beg someone whether he gives him or refuses.”
On the issue of roads, the Messenger of Allah organised the roads at his time by making the road of seven cubits in case of dispute. Al-Bukhari narrated from Abu Hurayrah
«قَضَى النَّبِيُّ إِذَا تَشَاجَرُوا فِي الطَّرِيقِ بِسَـبْعَةِ أَذْرُعٍ»
“The Prophetصلى الله عليه وآله وسلمjudged that seven cubits should be left as a public way when there was a dispute about the road”.The narration by Muslim says:
«إِذَا اخْـتَلَفْـتُمْ فِي الطَّرِيقِ جُعِلَ عَرْضُهُ سَـبْعَ أَذْرُعٍ»
“If you dispute over a road its breadth should be made seven cubits”. Ahmad reported from Ibn ‘Abbas
«وَالطَّرِيقُ الْمِيتَاءُ سَبْعَةُ أَذْرُعٍ»
“The Messenger of Allah said: The frequented road is seven cubits” and in another report by Ahmad from ‘Ubada b. Al-Samit
« وَقَضَى فِي الرَّحَبَةِ تَكُونُ بَيْنَ الطَّرِيقِ ثُمَّ يُرِيدُ أَهْلُهَا الْبُنْيَانَ فِيهَا فَقَضَى أَنْ يُتْرَكَ لِلطَّرِيقِ فِيهَا سَبْعُ أَذْرُعٍ»
“The Prophet ruled that seven cubits should be left for the road in case people want to set aside an area (in the middle of the road) for their own building.”
This was from the administrative organisation of that time, and if there is need for wider than that it is allowed according to the opinion of the school of Al-Shafi'i.
The Messenger of Allah has also prevented transgression against the road. Tabarani reported in Al-Sagheer:
«مَنْ أَخَذَ مِنْ طَرِيقِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ شِبْراً طَوَّقَهُ اللَّهُ يَوْمَ القِيَامَةِ مِنْ سَـبْعِ أَرَضِينَ»
“Whoever takes a handspan from the road of Muslims Allah will encircle him from seven earths on the Day of Judgement.”
In matters of agriculture, Al-Zubayr disputed with a man from the Ansar regarding irrigating from a stream of water flowing in their lands. The Messenger of Allah said:
«اسْقِ يَا زُبَيْرُ ثُمَّ أَرْسِلِ الْمَاءَ إِلَى جَارِكَ»
“O Zubayr! water and then let the water flow to your neighbour” (agreed upon with the wording from Muslim).
Thus, the Messenger of Allah used to run the affairs of the Muslims and solve their problems easily and simply, without complication. He used to seek the help of some of the companions in conducting that, thus making the affairs of the people an organisation entrusted to the Khalifah, or he appointed a competent manager over it that took charge of it. This is what is adopted here so as to reduce the burden of the Khalifah, particularly since the affairs of the people have increased and branched out. Accordingly, there would be an organisation for the people’s affairs entrusted to a competent manager, and run by styles and means that assist the citizens living there, that provides for them the necessary services without complication and rather provides ease and simplicity.
This system consists of administrations, departments, and directorates. The administration is the overall management of any government affair, such as citizenship, transportations, money coinage, education, health, agriculture, employment, roads and others. This administration would undertake the management of its own affairs and all the departments and directorates under its control. The department would also run its own affairs and those of the directorates under its control. The directorate would also run its own affairs and the affairs of all the sections and divisions under its control.
The purpose of establishing these administrations, departments, and directorates, is to manage the State’s affairs and to carry out the peoples’ interests.
The administrative apparatus is a style from the styles of undertaking an action, and is an instrument from the various means, and so it does not require a specific evidence; it is sufficient to provide a general evidence that indicates its origin, and it cannot be argued that these instruments are the actions of the worshipper and ,therefore, it is not correct for them to proceed except in accordance with the Shari’ah rules. The reason this cannot be argued is because these actions are based upon a general evidence for their origin, and so it encompasses everything that branches off it in terms of actions, unless a specific Shari’ah evidence for the action which is a branch of the origin is found in which case the specific evidence is followed. For example, Allah (swt) says
“And give Zakah” (TMQ 73:20), which is a general evidence, and there are evidences for the actions which branch out from it, for the calculation of the Nisab (amount after which Zakat is due upon the wealth), the collectors, and the categories which are eligible to receive the Zakat; these are all actions which branch out from
“And give Zakah”. There are no evidences regarding how the collectors should collect it, whether they should be riding or walking, should they employ some people to help them with it or not, should it be recorded in a booklet, are they assigned a place where they gather, should they have a storage in order to place in it whatever is gathered, should the storage be underground or built like the grain warehouses and should the Zakat which is monetary be collected in bags or boxes. These and similar issues are actions which branch out from
“And give Zakah”, and they are encompassed by the general evidence since there is no specific evidence regarding them. This is the same for all the styles. Accordingly, the style is the action that is a branch of an action that has general evidence. Consequently, there is no need for it to have evidence, since the general evidence of its origin is an evidence for it.
For that reason the administrative styles can be taken from any system, if they were suitable to make the work of the administrative apparatus easier and fulfil the needs of the people, since the administrative styles are not a rule that requires Shari’ah evidence. Due to this, Umar (ra) took the style of the Diwan (register) for recording the names of the soldiers and citizens, in order to distribute the wealth to them from the public or state wealth such as benefits or salaries.
‘Abid Ibn Yahya reported on the authority of Al-Harith b. Nufayl that Umar (ra) consulted the Muslims about the recording of Dawawin, and ‘Ali b. Abi Talib (ra) suggested, “Divide all the funds you collect each year and do not keep any of it.” ‘Uthman b. ‘Affan (ra) said, "I see that there are a lot of funds being distributed amongst people, and if they are not counted in order to know who has taken and who has not, I fear that the matter could get out of hand.” Upon this Al-Walid b. Hisham b. Al-Mughira said, “I was in Al-Sham and I noticed that its kings had introduced a Diwan and recruited soldiers, so why don’t you do the same?” Umar (ra) took his advice and summoned ‘Aqil b. Abi Talib and Makhramah b. Nufayl and Jubayr Ibn Mat‘am, who were young men from Quraysh, and said, "Record the people according to where they live."
When Islam reached Iraq, the Diwan of payments and fund collection continued as before. The Diwan of Al-Sham was in Latin for it had been part of the Roman Empires, and the Diwan of Iraq was in Persian for it had been part of the Persian Empire. At the time of Abdul Malik Ibn Marwan the Diwan of Al-sham was translated to Arabic (in the year 81 AH). Several Dawaein were then set up according to necessity and depending on the need for them in running the people’s interests. Dawawin for the armed forces were introduced for registration and grant purposes, and others were introduced to record the fees and claims of all transactions. Another Diwan was introduced for the ‘Amils and Walis to record each appointment and each removal and other Dawaein were used in the treasury (Bayt Al-Mal) to record revenues and expenses and so on. The introduction of a Diwan was depending on the need for it and its style varied over the years due to the difference in styles and means.
A chief was appointed for each Diwan along with other employees, and in some cases the chief was allowed to appoint the employees himself, and they were sometimes appointed to him.
A Diwan would thus be set up according to need, along with the styles and means that would help in carrying out that need. It is permitted to have different styles and means in every era, and in every province,and in every country.