Das Kalifat (Kalifatsstaat), Kalifat gemäß dem Prophetenplan, Staat für die Festigung des Islams, die Sicherheit der Muslime und Barmherzigkeit für die Welten. Legitimität, das islamische Recht, Vorschriften, Verfassung

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Das Kriegsressort §61-69

Artikel 61: Das Kriegsressort

Das Kalifat (Kalifatsstaat), die Verfassung, Artikel 61: Das Kriegsressort befasst sich mit allen Angelegenheiten, die mit den Streitkräften in Verbindung stehen, sei es die Armee, die Polizei, das Kriegsmaterial, die Kriegslogistik, die Kriegsausrüstung und dergleichen. Dazu gehören auch die Militärakademien, die Militärmissionen und alles, was an islamischer und allgemeiner Geistesbildung für die Armee erforderlich ist. Das Kriegsressort befasst sich ebenso mit allem, was mit dem Krieg und der Kriegsvorbereitung zusammenhängt. Der Leiter dieses Ressorts wird als Amir al-Dschihad / Amīr Dschihād bezeichnet.

 

Article 61: The War Department is in charge of all the affairs connected to the armed forces of the Army and police, and the treaties, tasks, military equipment and similar. They are also responsible for the military colleges, expeditions and everything that is necessary from the Islamic culture and the general culture necessary for the Army, as well as everything connected to war and its preparation, and the head of this department is called the Amir of Jihad

The war department is one of the State’s institutions, and its head is called the Amir of Jihad, rather than the manager of Jihad. This is because the Messenger  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم used to call the leaders of the Army Umara’. Ibn Sa’d narrated that the Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said

«أَمِيرُ النَّاسِ زَيْدُ بن حَارِثَةَ، فَإِنْ قُتِلَ فَجَعْفَرُ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ، فَإِنْ قُتِلَ فَعَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ رَوَاحَةَ، فَإِنْ قُتِلَ فَلْيَرْتَضِ المُسْلِمُونَ بَيْنَهُمْ رَجُلاً فَيَجْعَلُوهُ عَلَيْهِمْ»

“The leader (Amir) of the people is Zayd Ibn Haritha; if killed, then the Amir is Ja’far Ibn Abi Talib; and killed, the Amir is ’Abdullah Ibn Ruwahah; and if he was killed, let Muslims choose one man from among them and make him their Amir”. Al-Bukhari narrated that ’Abdullah Ibn Umar (ra) said:

«أَمَّرَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم فِي غَزْوَةِ مُؤْتَةَ زَيْدَ بْنَ حَارِثَةَ ...»

“The Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم appointed Zayd Ibn Haritha as Amir in the expedition of Mu’ta…” and Al-Bukhari narrated from Salamah b. Al-Akwa’:

«وَغَزَوْتُ مَعَ زَيْدٍ، وَكَانَ يُؤَمِّرُهُ عَلَيْنَا»

“I went on an expedition with Zayd; he was appointed Amir over us”. Al-Bukhari and Muslim narrated that ’Abdullah Ibn Umar (ra) said:

«بَعَثَ النَّبِيُّ  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم بَعْثًا وَأَمَّرَ عَلَيْهِمْ أُسَامَةَ بْنَ زَيْدٍ، فَطَعَنَ بَعْضُ النَّاسِ فِي إِمَارَتِهِ، فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم : أَنْ تَطْعُنُوا فِي إِمَارَتِهِ فَقَدْ كُنْتُمْ تَطْعُنُونَ فِي إِمَارَةِ أَبِيهِ مِنْ قَبْلُ، وَايْمُ اللَّهِ إِنْ كَانَ لَخَلِيقًا لِلإِمَارَةِ ...»

“The Prophet  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم sent an army detachment and made Usama bin Zaid its commander. Some people criticized (spoke badly of) Usama's leadership. So Allah's Prophet  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم got up and said, "If you people are criticizing Usama's leadership, you have already criticized the leadership of his father before. But Waaimullah (i.e., By Allah), he (i.e. Zaid) deserved leadershipThe companions, may Allah be pleased with them, used to call the Army of Mu’tah the Army ofUmara’. Muslim narrated from Buraydah who said:

«كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم إِذَا أَمَّرَ أَمِيرًا عَلَى جَيْشٍ أَوْ سَرِيَّةٍ أَوْصَاهُ ...»

“Whenever the Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم appointed anyone as a leader of an army or detachement, he would especially exhort him”.

The war department takes charge of all the issues connected to the armed force as mentioned in the article. The task of sending spies against the belligerent disbelievers is also the role of the war department and a special section is created for this purpose.

The evidences for this are well known from the life of the Messenger  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم

The evidences for preparation being the words of Allah (swt)

((وَأَعِدُّوا لَهُمْ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُمْ مِنْ قُوَّةٍ وَمِنْ رِبَاطِ الْخَيْلِ تُرْهِبُونَ بِهِ عَدُوَّ اللَّهِ وَعَدُوَّكُمْ وَآَخَرِينَ مِنْ دُونِهِمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَهُمُ اللَّهُ يَعْلَمُهُمْ وَمَا تُنْفِقُوا مِنْ شَيْءٍ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ يُوَفَّ إِلَيْكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ لَا تُظْلَمُونَ (60)}

And prepare against them whatever you are able of power and of steeds of war by which you may terrify the enemy of Allah and your enemy and others besides them whom you do not know [but] whom Allah knows. And whatever you spend in the cause of Allah will be fully repaid to you, and you will not be wronged.(TMQ 8:60).

And what was reported by Ibn Sa’d in Al-Tabaqat from Makhul

«أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم نَصَبَ المِنْجَنِيقَ عَلَى أَهْلِ الطَّائِفِ أَرْبَعِينَ يَوْماً"

“The Prophet  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم set up the ballista against the fortifications of Ta’if for forty days”. And Ibn Hisham mentioned in his Sirah

«حَدَّثَنِي مَنْ أَثِقُ بِهِ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم أَوَّلُ مَنْ رَمَى فِي الإِسْلاَمِ بِالمِـنْجَنِيقِ»

“Someone I trust narrated to me that the Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم was the first to use ballista in Islam”

The evidences for training: Muslim reported from ’Uqbah Bin Amir who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم say while on the pulpit

«((وَأَعِدُّوا لَهُمْ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُمْ مِنْ قُوَّةٍ} أَلاَ إِنَّ الْقُوَّةَ الرَّمْيُ، أَلاَ إِنَّ الْقُوَّةَ الرَّمْيُ، أَلاَ إِنَّ الْقُوَّةَ الرَّمْيُ»

And prepare against them whatever you are able of power – Beware, strength consists in (reside or lie) archery, strength consists in iarchery, strength consists in archery”. Al-Bukhari reported from Salama Bin Al-Akwa’ who said

«مَرَّ النَّبِيُّ  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم عَلَى نَفَرٍ مِنْ أَسْلَمَ يَنْتَضِلُونَ، فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم : ارْمُوا بَنِي إِسْمَاعِيلَ فَإِنَّ أَبَاكُمْ كَانَ رَامِيًا، ارْمُوا وَأَنَا مَعَ بَنِي فُلاَنٍ، قَالَ: فَأَمْسَكَ أَحَدُ الْفَرِيقَيْنِ بِأَيْدِيهِمْ، فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم مَا لَكُمْ لاَ تَرْمُونَ؟ فَقَالُوا: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، نَرْمِي وَأَنْتَ مَعَهُمْ؟ قَالَ: ارْمُوا وَأَنَا مَعَكُمْ كُلِّكُمْ»

“Bani Isma`il ! Practice archery as your father Isma`il was a great archer. Keep on throwing arrows and I am with Bani so-and-so." So one of the parties ceased throwing. Allah's Prophet said, "Why do you not throw?" They replied, "How should we throw while you are with them (i.e. on their side)?" On that the Prophet said  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم , "Throw, and I am with all of you”

And Muslim reported that:

«أَنَّ فُقَيْمًا اللَّخْمِيَّ قَالَ لِعُقْبَةَ بْنِ عَامِرٍ: تَخْتَلِفُ بَيْنَ هَذَيْنِ الْغَرَضَيْنِ وَأَنْتَ كَبِيرٌ يَشُقُّ عَلَيْكَ، قَالَ عُقْبَةُ: لَوْلاَ كَلاَمٌ سَمِعْتُهُ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم لَمْ أُعَانِيهِ، قَالَ الْحَارِثُ: فَقُلْتُ لاِبْنِ شَمَاسَةَ: وَمَا ذَاكَ؟ قَالَ: إِنَّهُ قَالَ: مَنْ عَلِمَ الرَّمْيَ ثُمَّ تَرَكَهُ فَلَيْسَ مِنَّا، أَوْ قَدْ عَصَى»

Fuqaim Al- Lakhmi said to Uqba b. Amir: You frequent between these two targets and you are an old man, so you will be finding it very hard. 'Uqba said: But for a thing I heard from the Holy Prophet  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم (may peace be upon him), I would not strain myself. Harith (one of the narrators in the chain of transmitters) said: I asked Ibn Shamasa: What was that? He said that he (the Holy Prophet)  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said: Who learnt archery and then gave it up is not from us. or he has been guilty of disobedience (to Allah's Prophetصلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)”

And Abu Dawud reported a narration that Al-Hakim authenticated and Al-Dhahabi confirmed – with the wording from Abu Dawud – from Khalid b. Zayd who said: I used to shoot against ’Uqbah b. ’Amir, and so he passed by me that day and said: O Khalid, come out with us to shoot, and so I delayed. He said: O Khalid, come, I will tell you something that the Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم told me, and I will say it as the Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:

«إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يُدْخِلُ بِالسَّهْمِ الْوَاحِدِ ثَلاَثَةَ نَفَرٍ الْجَنَّةَ: صَانِعَهُ يَحْتَسِبُ فِي صَنْعَتِهِ الْخَيْرَ، وَالرَّامِيَ بِهِ، وَمُنْبِلَهُ، وَارْمُوا وَارْكَبُوا، وَأَنْ تَرْمُوا أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِنْ أَنْ تَرْكَبُوا، لَيْسَ مِنْ اللَّهْوِ إِلاَّ ثَلاَثٌ: تَأْدِيبُ الرَّجُلِ فَرَسَهُ، وَمُلاعَبَتُهُ أَهْلَهُ، وَرَمْيُهُ بِقَوْسِهِ وَنَبْلِهِ، وَمَنْ تَرَكَ الرَّمْيَ بَعْدَ مَا عَلِمَهُ رَغْبَةً عَنْهُ فَإِنَّهَا نِعْمَةٌ تَرَكَهَا أَوْ قَالَ كَفَرَهَا»

Allah, Most High, will cause three persons to enter Paradise for one arrow: the maker when he has a good motive in making it, the one who shoots it, and the one who hands it; so shoot and ride, but your shooting is dearer to me than your riding. Everything with which a man amuses himself is vain except three (things): a man's training of his horse, his playing with his wife, and his shooting with his bow and arrow. If anyone abandons archery after becoming an adept through distaste for it, it is a blessing he has abandoned; or he said: for which he has been ungrateful”.

The evidence regarding the necessary culturing of the Army: Allah (swt) said in the chapter of Al-Tawba:

((إِنَّ اللَّهَ اشْتَرَى مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنْفُسَهُمْ وَأَمْوَالَهُمْ بِأَنَّ لَهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَيَقْتُلُونَ وَيُقْتَلُونَ وَعْدًا عَلَيْهِ حَقًّا فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالْإِنْجِيلِ وَالْقُرْآَنِ وَمَنْ أَوْفَى بِعَهْدِهِ مِنَ اللَّهِ فَاسْتَبْشِرُوا بِبَيْعِكُمُ الَّذِي بَايَعْتُمْ بِهِ وَذَلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ (111) التَّائِبُونَ الْعَابِدُونَ الْحَامِدُونَ السَّائِحُونَ الرَّاكِعُونَ السَّاجِدُونَ الْآَمِرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَالنَّاهُونَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَالْحَافِظُونَ لِحُدُودِ اللَّهِ وَبَشِّرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (112)}

Indeed, Allah has purchased from the believers their lives and their properties [in exchange] for that they will have Paradise. They fight in the cause of Allah, so they kill and are killed. [It is] a true promise [binding] upon Him in the Torah and the Gospel and the Qur'an. And who is truer to his covenant than Allah? So rejoice in your transaction which you have contracted. And it is that which is the great attainment; [Such believers are] the repentant, the worshippers, the praisers [of Allah], the travelers [for His cause], those who bow and prostrate [in prayer], those who enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong, and those who observe the limits [set by] Allah. And give good tidings to the believers.(TMQ 111-112). Allah (swt) did not make it sufficient to give one’s life and money to be from those who are given glad tidings, but rather added that they are repenters, worshippers, fasting, praying, enjoining the good and forbidding the evil and observing the limits set by Allah (swt), upright upon them and not transgressing them, rather there is a safe distance to kept away from them.

Allah (swt) said

((يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا اصْبِرُوا وَصَابِرُوا وَرَابِطُوا وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ (200)}

O you who have believed, persevere and endure and remain stationed and fear Allah that you may be successful.(TMQ 3:200).

Al-Bukhari and Muslim reported from Sahl Bin Sa’d Al-Sa’idi that the Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said

"رِبَاطُ يَوْمٍ فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ خَيْرٌ مِنْ الدُّنْـيَا وَمَا عَلَيْهَا، وَمَوْضِـعُ سَـوْطِ أَحَدِكُمْ مِنْ الْجَـنَّةِ خَيْرٌ مِنْ الدُّنْيَا وَمَا عَلَيْهَا، وَالرَّوْحَةُ يَرُوحُهَا الْعَبْدُ فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ، أَوْ الْغَدْوَةُ، خَيْرٌ مِنْ الدُّنْيَا وَمَا عَلَيْهَا"

Observing Ribat (e.g., guarding the Islamic frontier for the sake of Allah) for a single day is far better than the world and all that it contains. A place in Jannah as small as the whip of your horse is far better than the world and all that it contains. An endeavour (fighting) in the Cause of Allah in the evening or in the morning is far better than the world and all that it contains."

And Al-Bukhari reported from ’Abd Allah b. Abi ’Awfa that the Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said

"وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ الْجَنَّةَ تَحْتَ ظِلالِ السُّـيُوفِ"

“Know that paradise lies under the shades of swords”.

Al-Bukhari reported from ’Abd Al-Rahman b. Jabir that the Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said

"مَا اغْبَرَّتْ قَدَمَا عَبْدٍ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَتَمَسَّهُ النَّارُ"

(never happen) that the feet soiled with dust while (doing Jihad) in the way of Allah will be touched by the fire

Al-Hakim reported a narration which he authenticated, and Al-Dhahabi confirmed his authentication, from ’Imran b. Husayn that the Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said

"مَقَامُ الرَّجُلِ فِي الصَّفِّ فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ أَفْضَلُ عِنْدَ اللهِ مِنْ عِبَادَةِ الرَّجُلِ سِتِّينَ سَنَةً"

The place of a man in the lines (fighting) in the Cause of Allah is better to Allah than sixty years of a his worship”.

Al-Bukhari reported from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said

"إِنَّ فِي الْجَـنَّةِ مِائَةَ دَرَجَـةٍ أَعَـدَّهَـا اللَّهُ لِلْمُجَاهِدِينَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ، مَا بَيْنَ الدَّرَجَتَيْنِ كَمَا بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالأَرْضِ"

In Jannah there are a hundred grades which Allah has prepared for those who fight in His Cause; and the distance between any two of those grades is like the distance between the heaven and the earth”.

Muslim reported from Anas who said:

"فَدَنَا الْمُشْرِكُونَ، فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم قُومُوا إِلَى جَنَّةٍ عَرْضُهَا السَّمَوَاتُ وَالأَرْضُ، قَالَ: يَقُولُ عُمَيْرُ بْنُ الْحُمَامِ الأَنْصَارِيُّ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، جَنَّةٌ عَرْضُهَا السَّمَوَاتُ وَالأَرْضُ؟ قَالَ: نَعَمْ، قَالَ: بَخٍ بَخٍ، فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم مَا يَحْمِلُكَ عَلَى قَوْلِكَ بَخٍ بَخٍ؟ قَالَ لاَ وَاللَّهِ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِلاَّ رَجَاءَةَ أَنْ أَكُونَ مِنْ أَهْلِهَا، قَالَ: فَإِنَّكَ مِنْ أَهْلِهَا، فَأَخْرَجَ تَمَرَاتٍ مِنْ قَرَنِهِ فَجَعَلَ يَأْكُلُ مِنْهُنَّ، ثُمَّ قَالَ: لَئِنْ أَنَا حَيِيتُ حَتَّى آكُلَ تَمَرَاتِي هَذِهِ إِنَّهَا لَحَيَاةٌ طَوِيلَةٌ، قَالَ: فَرَمَى بِمَا كَانَ مَعَهُ مِنْ التَّمْرِ ثُمَّ قَاتَلَهُمْ حَتَّى قُتِلَ"

“When the polytheists came near, the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "Now stand up and proceed towards Jannah which is as wide as are the heavens and the earth." 'Umair bin Al-Humam (May Allah be pleased with him) asked: "Is Jannah as wide as are the heaven and the earth?" The Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم replied in the affirmative. 'Umair remarked: "Great!" The Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم asked him what had urged him to say so. He replied: "Nothing, O Messenger of Allah! But hope that I might become one of the inhabitants of Jannah." The Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said, "You will definitely be among them." 'Umair then took some dates out of his quiver and began to eat them, but after a short time he said: "If I survive till I eat my dates, it will mean a long life." So he threw away the dates which he had with him and then fought with the enemy till he was killed.

The evidence of encouragement to fight:

Allah (swt) said

((فَقَاتِلْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ لَا تُكَلَّفُ إِلَّا نَفْسَكَ وَحَرِّضِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَسَى اللَّهُ أَنْ يَكُفَّ بَأْسَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَاللَّهُ أَشَدُّ بَأْسًا وَأَشَدُّ تَنْكِيلًا (84)))

So fight, [O Muhammad], in the cause of Allah; you are not held responsible except for yourself. And encourage the believers [to join you] that perhaps Allah will restrain the [military] might of those who disbelieve. And Allah is greater in might and stronger in [exemplary] punishment.” (TMQ 4:84).

And He (swt) said

(( يا أيّها النَّبِيُّ حَرِّضِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَى الْقِتَالِ إِنْ يَكُنْ مِنْكُمْ عِشْرُونَ صَابِرُونَ يَغْلِبُوا مِائَتَيْنِ وَإِنْ يَكُنْ مِنْكُمْ مِئَةٌ يَغْلِبُوا أَلْفًا مِنَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لَا يَفْقَهُونَ (65) ))

O Prophet, urge the believers to battle. If there are among you twenty [who are] steadfast, they will overcome two hundred. And if there are among you one hundred [who are] steadfast, they will overcome a thousand of those who have disbelieved because they are a people who do not understand.” (TMQ 8:65).

Ibn Ishaq reported saying:

"ثُمَّ خَرَجَ رَسُولُ اللهِ  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم إِلَى النَّاسِ فَحَرَّضَهُمْ وَقَالَ: وَالَّذِي نَفْسُ مُحَمَّدٍ بِيَدِهِ، لاَ يُقَاتِلُهُمُ اليَوْمَ رَجُلٌ فَيُقْتَلُ صَابِراً مُحْتَسِباً مُقْبِلاً غَيْرَ مُدْبِرٍ إِلاَّ أَدْخَلَهُ اللَّهُ الْجَـنَّةَ ... "

“Then the Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم went out to the people and incited (encouraged) them by saying: By the One who the soul of Muhammad is in His Hand, he who fights today and is killed (martyred) maintaining patience, expecting reward from Allah, and attacking and not retreating, then Allah will cause him to enter Paradise”.

Ahmad reported with an authentic chain from Abu Hurayrah who said:

"... فَنَظَرَ فَرَآنِي فَقَالَ: يَا أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ، فَقُلْتُ: لَبَّيْكَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، قَالَ فَقَالَ: اهْتِفْ لِي بِالأَنْصَارِ وَلاَ يَأْتِينِي إِلاَّ أَنْصَارِيٌّ، فَهَتَفْتُ بِهِمْ فَجَاءُوا، فَأَطَافُوا بِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم فَقَالَ: تَرَوْنَ إِلَى أَوْبَاشِ قُرَيْشٍ وَأَتْبَاعِهِمْ؟ ثُمَّ قَـالَ بِيَدَيْهِ إِحْـدَاهُـمَـا عَلَى الأُخْرَى: حَصْدًا حَتَّى تُوَافُونِي بِالصَّفَا ... "

“...so he looked and saw me, and said: O Abu Hurayrah. I said: I am present, I am present Messenger of Allah, and so he said: Call the Ansar (supporters) to me, and no one other than them should come to me. So I called them, and they came; then they came around the Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم who  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said: Do you see the rabble of Quraysh and their followers?: kill them until you meet me at Safa (and he was) tying his hands together.”

Muslim reported from ’Abbas b. ’Abd Al-Muttalib who said,

"شَهِدْتُ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم يَوْمَ حُنَيْنٍ ... فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم : أَيْ عَبَّاسُ، نَادِ أَصْحَابَ السَّمُرَةِ، فَقَالَ عَبَّاسٌ - وَكَانَ رَجُلاً صَيِّتاً - فَقُلْتُ بِأَعْلَى صَوْتِي: أَيْنَ أَصْحَابُ السَّمُرَةِ، قَالَ: فَوَاللَّهِ لَكَأَنَّ عَطْفَتَهُمْ حِينَ سَمِعُوا صَوْتِي عَطْفَةُ الْبَقَرِ عَلَى أَوْلاَدِهَا، فَقَالُوا: يَا لَـبَّـيْكَ يَا لَـبَّـيْكَ ... "

“I witnessed the day of Hunayn with the Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم …The Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said O ’Abbas, call out to the people of Samura (the tree under which the companions gave the Prophet the Bay’a of Ridwan before the treaty of Al-Hudaybiyah). ’Abbas (who was a man with a loud voice) called out at the top of his voice: Where are the people of Samura? And by Allah, when they heard my voice, they came back (to us) as cows come back to their calves, and said: We are present, we are present”.

The evidences to have patience and more endurance than the enemy at the battlefield:

Allah (swt) said,

((يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا إِذَا لَقِيتُمْ فِئَةً فَاثْبُتُوا وَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ (45)}

O you who have believed, when you encounter a company [from the enemy forces], stand firm and remember Allah much that you may be successful.” (TMQ 8:45).

And He (swt) said,

((يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا اصْبِرُوا وَصَابِرُوا وَرَابِطُوا وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ (200)))

O you who have believed, persevere and endure and remain stationed and fear Allah that you may be successful.” (TMQ 3:200).

And He (swt) said,

((ثُمَّ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ لِلَّذِينَ هَاجَرُوا مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا فُتِنُوا ثُمَّ جَاهَدُوا وَصَبَرُوا إِنَّ رَبَّكَ مِنْ بَعْدِهَا لَغَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ} (110)

Then, indeed your Lord, to those who emigrated after they had been compelled [to renounce their religion] and thereafter fought [for the cause of Allah] and were patient - indeed, your Lord, after that, is Forgiving and Merciful”. (TMQ 16:110).

Muslim reported from Jabir who said

«لَمْ نُبَايِعْ رَسُولَ اللهِ  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم عَلَى الْمَوْتِ، إِنَّمَا بَايَعْنَاهُ عَلَى أَنْ لا نَفِرَّ»

“We did not give plege to the Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم upon death, we rather pledged not to flee (from battle)”.

Al-Bukhari reported from ’Abdullah Bin Abi Awfa that the Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said

"إِذَا لَقِيتُمُوهُمْ فَاصْبِرُوا"

“When you meet them (on the battlefield), have patience”.

The proof for preparing the Army such that they are not taken by surprise:

Al-Bukhari reported from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said

"... طُوبَى لِعَبْدٍ آخِذٍ بِعِنَانِ فَرَسِهِ فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ، أَشْعَثَ رَأْسُهُ، مُغْبَرَّةٍ قَدَمَاهُ، إِنْ كَانَ فِي الْحِرَاسَةِ كَانَ فِي الْحِـرَاسَـةِ، وَإِنْ كَانَ فِي السَّاقَـةِ كَانَ فِي السَّاقَـةِ، إِنِ اسْـتَأْذَنَ لَمْ يُؤْذَنْ لَهُ، وَإِنْ شَفَعَ لَمْ يُشَفَّعْ"

“Paradise (Tuba is a tree in Paradise) is for one who holds the reins to strive in the cause of Allah, with his hair unkempt and his feet covered with dust. If he is appointed in the vanguard, he is perfectly satisfied with his post of guarding, and if he is appointed in the rearward, he accepts his post with satisfaction; (he is so simple and unambiguous that) that if he asks for permission, he is not permitted, and if he intercedes, his intercession is not accepted”.

Al-Tirmidhi reported a narration that he considered Hasan from Ibn ’Abbas who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم say

"عَـيْـنَانِ لا تَمَسُّهُمَا النَّارُ: عَيْنٌ بَكَتْ مِنْ خَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ، وَعَيْنٌ بَاتَتْ تَحْرُسُ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ"

“Two eyes will not be touched by the hellfire: an eye that weeps out of the fear of Allah, and an eye that spends the night on guard in the cause of Allah”.

Al-Hakim reported a narration he authenticated, and which Al-Dhahabi confirmed, from Ibn Umar that the Prophet  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said

"أَلاَ أُنْبِئُكُمْ بِلَيْلَةٍ أَفْضَلَ مِنْ لَيْلَةِ القَدْرِ، حَارِسٌ حَرَسَ فِي أَرْضِ خَوْفٍ لَعَلَّهُ أَنْ لاَ يَرْجِعَ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ"

“Should I not tell you about a night better than the night of Qadar? (It is one during which ..) A guard (in Jihad) guarding in a land of war (fear)and not sure wheather he will be back to his family.”

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