Das Kalifat (Kalifatsstaat), Kalifat gemäß dem Prophetenplan, Staat für die Festigung des Islams, die Sicherheit der Muslime und Barmherzigkeit für die Welten. Legitimität, das islamische Recht, Vorschriften, Verfassung

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Der Kalif §24-41

Artikel 40: Fälle führen zur Absetzung des Kalifen

Das Kalifat (Kalifatsstaat), die Verfassung, Artikel 40: Die Fälle, in denen sich der Zustand des Kalifen in einer Weise ändert, die ihn aus dem Kalifat ausschließt, sind die folgenden drei:

a) Wenn eine der Vollzugsbedingungen für das Kalifat nicht mehr erfüllt ist. Dies ist der Fall, wenn der Kalif etwa vom Islam abfällt, offensichtlich frevelhaft wird, seinen Verstand verliert oder dergleichen. Diese Bedingungen sind nämlich Bedingungen für den Vollzug und den Fortbestand des Kalifatsvertrages; sie müssen dauerhaft erfüllt sein.

b) Wenn der Kalif aus irgendeinem Grund nicht mehr in der Lage ist, die Aufgaben des Kalifats wahrzunehmen.

c) Wenn er unter Zwang steht und unfähig ist, die Angelegenheiten der Muslime nach seiner Meinung im Einklang mit dem islamischen Rechtzu regeln. Sollte er dergestalt überwältigt werden, dass er unfähig wird, die Angelegenheiten der Staatsbürger allein nach seiner Meinung in Übereinstimmung mit der Scharia (Šaria) wahrzunehmen, gilt er als rechtlich unfähig, die Aufgaben des Staates auszuüben, und schließt sich damit aus dem Kalifat aus. Dies könnte in zwei Fällen eintreten:

  • Erstens: Er wird durch eine oder mehrere Personen seines Hofes dermaßen beeinflusst, dass sie die Angelegenheiten allein in die Hand nehmen. Besteht Hoffnung zur Befreiung aus ihrer Kontrolle, wird ihm eine bestimmte Frist gesetzt. Sollte ihre Kontrolle danach nicht behoben werden, erfolgt die Absetzung. Besteht keine Hoffnung zur Beendigung dieses Zustandes, erfolgt die Absetzung sofort.
  • Zweitens: Der Kalif wird von einem Feind überwältigt und gerät in seine Gefangenschaft, sei es durch seine tatsächliche Gefangennahme, sei es, dass er unter den Einfluss des Feindes fällt. In diesem Fall wird Folgendes untersucht: Besteht Hoffnung auf Befreiung, wird ihm eine Frist gewährt, bis keine Hoffnung mehr auf eine Befreiung besteht. Dann erfolgt seine Absetzung. Besteht von vornherein keine Hoffnung auf Befreiung, wird er unverzüglich abgesetzt.

 

Article 40: The issues which alter the state of the Caliph (Khalifah) and ,therefore, remove him from the Caliphate (Khilafah) are three:

  1. If one of the contracting conditionsof the leadership of the State becomes deficient, such as if he apostatises, or commits flagrant sin, or becomes mad, or anything similar. This is because these are from the conditions of contracting, and the conditions of continuation.
  2. The incapability to execute the duties of the Caliphate (Khilafah), for any reason whatsoever.
  3. Coercion over him which makes him unable to independently act in the interests of the Muslims according to his opinion in agreement with the Shari’ah. So if an overpowering force could subdue him to the point that he became unable to govern the affairs of the subjects by his opinion alone according to the Shari’ah rules, he is considered legally incapable of executing the duties of the State, in which case he would be removed from the Caliphate (Khilafah). This could occur in two situations:      

The first situation: For an individual or group of individuals from his advisors to hold sway over him to the point they began to take full control of running the affairs. If it was believed that he could be liberated from their influence, he is admonished for a specific time, and if he does not remove their influence, then he is removed. And if it was not believed that he could be liberated, he is removed immediately.

The second situation: For him to become a prisoner in the hands of an overpowering enemy, either literally or by his submission to the influence of the enemy. This situation is evaluated – if it was hoped he could be liberated, then there is a delay until no such hope remains, and if there were no hope in his liberation, then he is removed; if there was no hope in his liberation, then he is removed immediately.

The proof for this is the texts that have been related in regards to the conditions of the Caliph (Khalifah), since these texts indicate that these conditions are conditions for continuation and not simply conditions for taking the position alone. When the Messengerصلى الله عليه وآله وسلمsaid

«لَنْ يُفْلِحَ قَوْمٌ وَلَّوْا أَمْرَهُمُ امْرَأَةً»

“Never will succeed such a nation that makes a woman their leader (reported by Al-Bukhari from Abu Bakrah), his words included the ruling, so as long as the person is a leader, he could not be a woman; so if a man who was a ruler became a woman, due to any reason, then he would have lost this condition and it would be obligatory to remove him immediately. In the same manner, when Allah (swt) said

{يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ}

O you who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you.(TMQ 4:59), His (swt) words “Among you” next to “those in authority” clearly means that the person of authority must be an adherent of Islam as long as he is a person of authority. So if the person of authority became someone not from amongst us, in other words, became a disbeliever, then this characteristic which the Quran stipulated for the person of authority would be lost - the loss of the condition of being Muslim - at which point he becomes removed from this position of authority since it is not correct for him to be a person of authority while he is not from amongst us, in other words, not a Muslim. And the same applies to all the texts which have been related in regards to the conditions of the Caliph (Khalifah); they are comprehensive texts which encompass the perpetual characteristics that are necessary for the one described, which indicates that they are conditions of continuation and not simply conditions for taking the position alone. Based upon that, the conditions for the contracting of the Caliphate (Khilafah) are also the conditions for removing him, since their presence is a condition for the contracting of the Caliphate (Khilafah), and a condition for its continuation due to the generality of the text, and their loss means the loss of its continuation, and so it is prohibited for the person to remain in their position. This is the proof for paragraph “a” of the article.

As for paragraph “b”, its evidence is that the contract of the Caliphate (Khilafah) is over the execution of its duties; so if he becomes incapable to execute what he was contracted upon, it becomes obligatory to remove him since he has become like one who in reality is not there. Additionally, due to his inability to execute the actions which are commissioned to him as Caliph (Khalifah), the issues of the Deen and the interests of the Muslims would be suspended, and this is an evil that must be removed, and it cannot be removed except by his removal so as to be replaced by someone else. His removal in this situation would become mandatory. It should be known that this is not linked to a specific reason; rather anything which afflicted him leading to his incapacity in executing his actions necessitates his removal. If it does not make him incapable, then he is not removed, and for this reason it cannot be said that losing limbs from his body necessitates removal or not, in the same way, it cannot be said that if he is afflicted by a specific illness, it necessitates his removal or not. This is since there is no text regarding this at all; rather the Shari’ah rule is that the one incapable of executing the actions which they have been commissioned for necessitates his removal, whatever the reason for this incapacity. This is not specific for the Caliph (Khalifah), rather it is general and applies to everyone who is commissioned to an action, irrespective of whether he was appointed as a ruler such as a governor or as an employee such as a department manager; his incapacity necessitates his removal.

The proof for paragraph “c” is the same as the proof for paragraph “b”. That is because the incapacity to execute the actions that have been commissioned to him as the Caliph (Khalifah) is of two types: literal incapacity and legal incapacity. Literal incapacity is when he is physically incapable, in other words, the loss of the physical capability to execute the actions, and this is what was discussed in paragraph “b”. Legal incapacity is when he is physically able to execute the actions, but he is incapable of freely acting to undertake the actions, and so the rule of literal incapacity would apply to him, since he is unable to undertake the execution of the actions which have been commissioned to him by himself, due to his incapability of freely acting in the affairs by himself, and so he becomes like the one who is absent; for this reason, it is necessary to remove him. This has two situations: the first is being confined, and the second is being overpowered.

As for the situation of confinement, it is when someone from his assistants takes control over him, and takes full control of implementing the issues while preventing him from dealing with them, and the one in control is the one who deals with the position of the Caliphate (Khilafah),and so the Caliph (Khalifah) in this situation is considered to be like the one who is confined and is prevented from freely speaking. Since the contract of the Caliphate (Khilafah) only proceeds upon the person of the Caliph (Khalifah), and ,therefore, it is obligatory to attend to the Caliphate (Khilafah) himself, this confinement over him or the full control of his assistants means that he has lost the ability to execute the actions that have been commissioned to him; accordingly, he has become like the one who is absent and must be removed. However, this situation will be evaluated; if there was some hope that the influence of the one who took control over the Caliph (Khalifah) could be removed and that his confinement could be broken, then his removal is delayed; if the confinement is not broken, then he is removed.

As for the situation of being overpowered, such as when he becomes a prisoner in the hand of the overpowering enemy and is unable to liberate himself from them, then he is prevented from the contract of the leadership given to him due to his incapability of looking into the affairs of the Muslims. This is the case whether the enemy was from amongst the disbelievers or rebellious Muslims. In this situation, it is obligatory upon all the Ummah to save him either through fighting or paying a ransom, and if there was no hope of this happening, then if he was a prisoner in the hands of the disbelievers, he would be removed immediately. If, however, he was a prisoner of the rebels, the situation would be evaluated; if they had an Imam, and they lost hope in recovering the Caliph (Khalifah), then he would be removed at the time, and if they did not have an Imam, then he would be considered as the one who is in the situation of confinement, in other words, they would delay for a period, and if his imprisonment was not ended, he would be removed.

These are the proofs for the three paragraphs and in totality, they are the proofs for the conditions of the Caliphate (Khilafah). So, in the same manner, the ability to carry out what has been commissioned to him is a condition. Thus, his incapacity to carry out what he has been commissioned to do entails the loss of this condition. However, it should be noticed that the loss of some of these conditions remove him from the Caliphate (Khilafah), in other words, annul the contract instantly, and the loss of some of them does not remove him from the Caliphate (Khilafah) but would mandate his removal. The three situations of apostasy from Islam, being completely mad and becoming a physical prisoner in the hands of the disbelievers with no hope of releasing him, remove him from the Caliphate (Khilafah) and he has deposed himself immediately even if his removal was not ruled upon. Therefore, it would mean that it is not obligatory to obey him, and his orders are not implemented and the contract of the Caliphate (Khilafah) with him is annulled.

As for if his just character is damaged by the appearance of clear sin, or changing his sex to female or someone whose gender is not clear, or if he became afflicted by temporary madness, or he became literally incapable of carrying out the Caliphate (Khilafah), or he is confined through being influenced by an individual or group from his advisors who take full control of executing the affairs, or he becomes a physical prisoner with the hope of being able to be liberated, or he falls under the influence of the disbelievers who control him; in these seven circumstances, it is obligatory for him to be removed, however, he is not removed except by a judge’s verdict. In all of these seven circumstances, it is obligatory to obey him and execute his orders until the order to remove him is issued; this is because none of these situations results in the automatic annulment of the contract of the Caliphate (Khilafah) but rather relies upon the verdict of a judge. The difference between the conditions which if lost result in his removal from the Caliphate (Khilafah) and those conditions whose loss does not remove him from the Caliphate (Khilafah) but rather mean that he is deserving of being removed, is that those conditions whose loss makes the contract invalid from its origin and quality, in that they return to the contract or are one of its pillars, then the contract would be invalid in this case since if they were not present at the time of the contracting of the Caliphate (Khilafah), then the contract would be invalid and would not have been concluded. If they appear during the period of the Caliphate (Khilafah), the contract would be invalid, and would be void as well. This would occur with conditions such as the condition of Islam, sanity and the capability to carry out the actions individually. As for the conditions whose loss does not make the contract invalid, but rather its basis remains legitimate, but it makes it invalid from its properties, since it does not return to the contract itself, nor to one of its pillars, but rather to a property attached to it. In this case, the contract is not invalid but rather is imperfect. So if all these conditions were not present at the time of contracting the Caliphate (Khilafah), the Caliphate (Khilafah) is contracted but it would be imperfect and its annulment would rely upon the verdict of a judge. In the same manner, if they appear during the period of the Caliphate (Khilafah), then the contract would become imperfect, but it would not void itself. Rather, its annulment would rely upon the verdict of a judge. Examples of this would be like the condition of being male, just and whatever is similar. It is from this explanation, that the difference between the changing of the condition of the Caliph (Khalifah) which removes him from the Caliphate (Khilafah), and the changing of condition which does not remove him from the Caliphate (Khilafah) but rather makes him deserving of being removed has been arrived at.

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