Das Kalifat (Kalifatsstaat), Kalifat gemäß dem Prophetenplan, Staat für die Festigung des Islams, die Sicherheit der Muslime und Barmherzigkeit für die Welten. Legitimität, das islamische Recht, Vorschriften, Verfassung

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Der Kalif §24-41

Artikel 31: Die Mindestbedingungen des Kandidaten für Position des Kalifen

Das Kalifat (Kalifatsstaat), die Verfassung, Artikel 31: Der Kalif muss sieben Bedingungen erfüllen (Einsetzungsbedingungen / Šurut al-In'iqad), damit ihm das Kalifat rechtmäßig zugeteilt werden kann: Er muss männlich sein, Muslim, frei, geschlechtsreif, geistig zurechnungsfähig, rechtschaffen und imstande, die Aufgabe zur Genüge zu erfüllen.

 

Article 31: There are seven conditions for the Caliph to be contracted, which are: to be male, Muslim, free, adult, sane, just, and from the people who have the capability.Since the Caliphate is a part of the ruling (guardianship), or rather it is the greatest guardianship, for that reason the text of the 19th article is mentioned here, in other words, the obligation for the seven mentioned conditions to be fulfilled:

The evidence that the Caliph should be male is what has been narrated from the Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم that when he heard that the Persians had given the rule to the daughter of Kisra, he صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:

«لَنْ يُفْلِحَ قَوْمٌ وَلَّوْا أَمْرَهُمُ امْرَأَةً»

“Never will succeed such a nation that makes a woman their leader.(narrated by Al-Bukhari from Abu Bakrah); this narration contains a decisive prohibition regarding a woman being appointed the leader of a State, since the expression “never” indicates permanency, which is an exaggeration in negating the success, so it is a blame, which means that the request to leave the Caliph from being a woman is a decisive request, and for this reason it was made a condition that he should be male.

As for the condition that he should be Muslim, this is due to His (swt) words:

{ وَلَنْ يَجْعَلَ اللَّهُ لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ سَبِيلًا}

And never will Allah give the disbelievers over the believers a way [to overcome them].” (TMQ 4:141), which is also a decisive prohibition since the expression “never” indicates permanency, and is information with the meaning of a request. As long as Allah (swt) prohibited the disbelievers having a way over the believers, then He (swt) prohibited for them to be made rulers over them, since the rule is the greatest way over the Muslims. Additionally, the Caliph is the person of authority, and Allah (swt) made it a condition that the person of authority should be a Muslim. Allah (swt) said:

{ أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ }

O you who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you.(TMQ 4:59) and He (swt) said:

{وَإِذَا جَاءَهُمْ أَمْرٌ مِنَ الْأَمْنِ أَوِ الْخَوْفِ أَذَاعُوا بِهِ وَلَوْ رَدُّوهُ إِلَى الرَّسُولِ وَإِلَى أُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْهُمْ}

And when there comes to them information about [public] security or fear, they spread it around. But if they had referred it back to the Messenger or to those of authority among them.” (TMQ 4:83).The words “people of authority” are not mentioned in the Quran unless it is also mentioned that they are from the Muslims, which indicates that the person of authority must be a Muslim. And since the Caliph is the person of authority, and he is the one who appoints the people of authority, then it is a condition that he must be a Muslim.

With respect to the condition that he should be free, this is since the slave is owned by his master and so does not control the independence of conduct for himself, and by greater reasoning he does not control the conduct of others, and ,therefore, he cannot control the guardianship over the people.

As for the condition that he should be an adult, this is due to what was narrated by ‘Ali b. Abi Talib (ra) that the Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:

«أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ رُفِعَ الْقَلَمُ عَنْ ثَلَاثَةٍ عَنْ النَّائِمِ حَتَّى يَسْتَيْقِظَ وَعَنْ الصَّغِيرِ حَتَّى يَكْبَرَ وَعَنْ الْمَجْنُونِ حَتَّى يَعْقِلَ أَوْ يُفِيقَ»

The Pen has been lifted from three (their actions are not recorded): from the sleeping person until he awakens, from the minor until he grows up, and from the insane person until he comes to his sensesand in a narration

«وَعَنْ الْمُبْتَلَى حَتَّى يَبْرَأَ»

“and from the afflicted person, until he recovers ”, reported by Ibn Maja and Al-Hakim from ‘A’ishah, and the wording is from Ibn Maja. Al-Tirmidhi and Ibn Khuzaymah also reported a similar narration through ‘Ali (ra).

What is understood from lifting the pen is that it is not correct for him to act independently in his own affairs, so it would not be correct for him to be the Khalifah. Also, it is narrated from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:

«تَعَوَّذُوا بِاللَّهِ مِنْ رَأْسِ السَّبْعِينَ وَإِمَارَةِ الصِّبْيَانِ»

“Seek refuge to Allah from the head of the seventy and the power of children” reported by Ahmad from Abu Hurayrah, which includes proof that it is not correct for a child to be the Khalifah. There is another narration from Abu ‘Aqil Zahrah Bin Ma‘bad, on the authority of his grandfather ‘Abd Allah Bin Hisham who lived at the time of the Prophet , and his mother Zaynab bint Hamid took him to the Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم and said:

يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، بَايِعْهُ،

“O Messenger of Allah, take the pledge from him”, and so the Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:

«هُوَ صَغِيرٌ، فَمَسَحَ رَأْسَهُ وَدَعَا لَهُ»

“He is young”, and touched his head and prayed for him, as reported by Al-Bukhari. Since the child is not permitted to give the pledge, then by greater reasoning he is not permitted to be given the pledge either.

As for the condition of being sane, the narration which was just mentioned

«رفع القلم عن ثلاثة...»

“the pen has been lifted from three …” to

«والمبتلى حتى يبرأ»

“the afflicted person until he recovers” and in another narration

«والمجنون حتى يفيق»

“the insane until he comes to his senses”, and from the understanding of raising of the pen is that it is not correct for him to act independently in his own affairs, so it would not be correct for him to be the Caliph and act upon the affairs of other people.

With respect to the condition of being just, this is because Allah (swt) made it a condition for the witness to be just; He (swt) says:

{وَأَشْهِدُوا ذَوَيْ عَدْلٍ مِنْكُمْ }

And bring to witness two just men from among you. (TMQ 65:2), and so the one who is more significant than the witness, and that is the Khalifah, must by greater reasoning also be just. That is because if the just characteristic has been made a condition for the witness then for it to be a condition for the Caliph is of a higher priority.

As for the condition that he is a capable person from amongst those who are able to fulfil the responsibility, this is necessitated by the pledge of allegiance, since the one who is not capable would be incapable of running the affairs of the people by the Quran and the Sunnah for those who gave him the pledge upon them.

The evidence for that includes:

1. Muslim narrated from Abu Dharr

«قُلْتُ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، أَلا تَسْتَعْمِلُنِي، قَالَ: فَضَرَبَ بِيَدِهِ عَلَى مَنْكِبِي ثُمَّ قَالَ: يَا أَبَا ذَرٍّ، إِنَّكَ ضَـعِـيفٌ وَإِنَّهَا أَمَانَةُ، وَإِنَّهَا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ خِزْيٌ وَنَدَامَةٌ إِلاَّ مَنْ أَخَذَهَا بِحَقِّهَا وَأَدَّى الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ فِيهَا»

“I said: O Messenger of Allah, Why don’t you appoint me (to an official position)? He صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم patted me on the shoulder with his hand and said, “O Abu Dharr, you are a weak man and it is a trust and it will be a cause of disgrace and remorse on the Day of Resurrectin except for one who takes it up with a full sense of responsibility and fulfils what is entrusted to him (discharges its obligations efficiently.)”

This explains that giving the order its due right and performance is only done by those who are capable of it, and the indication that engenders decisiveness is what the Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said about whoever takes it and is not capable of it

«وَإِنَّهَا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ خِزْيٌ وَنَدَامَةٌ إِلاَّ مَنْ أَخَذَهَا ...»

“and on the day of Judgement it will be a disgrace and a regret except for he who takes it”.

2. Al-Bukhari reported from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said:

«إِذَا ضُيِّعَتِ الأَمَانَةُ فَانْتَظِرِ السَّاعَةَ، قَالَ: كَيْفَ إِضَاعَتُهَا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ؟ قَالَ: إِذَا أُسْنِدَ الأَمْرُ إِلَى غَيْرِ أَهْلِهِ فَانْتَظِرِ السَّاعَةَ»

"When trust (honesty) is lost, then wait for the Hour. It was asked, “How will trust (honesty) be lost, O, Allah’s Propher?” He said, “When authority is given to those who not deserve it, then wait for the Hour.”

The narration indicates a decisive prohibition for the guardianship to be placed with one who is not suitable for it. And the decisive indication is that such an act would mean the abandonment of the trust, which is from the signs of the Hour, which is an indication of the enormity of the prohibition of it being undertaken by those not suitable for it.

As for how capability should be defined, this requires establishing the reality since it might be connected to bodily or mental illness, etc. and ,therefore, its definition is left for the Madhalim court, which will confirm that the conditions of contracting have been met in the candidates for the Khilafah.

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