Das Kalifat (Kalifatsstaat), Kalifat gemäß dem Prophetenplan, Staat für die Festigung des Islams, die Sicherheit der Muslime und Barmherzigkeit für die Welten. Legitimität, das islamische Recht, Vorschriften, Verfassung

Download , Verfassung  des KalifatsStaats,  Applikation für Android

Die Justiz §75-95

Artikel 75: Die Justiz

Das Kalifat (Kalifatsstaat), die Verfassung, Artikel 75: Das Gerichtsurteil ist die Verkündung des islamischen Rechtsspruches in zwingender Weise. Das Gericht regelt die Rechtsstreitigkeiten zwischen den Menschen, verbietet, was dem Recht der Gemeinschaft schadet, oder beseitigt vorfallende Streitigkeiten zwischen den Menschen und irgendeiner Person des Regierungsapparates, sei sie Regierender oder Beamter, Kalif oder jemand, der hierarchisch unter ihm steht.

Article 75: The Judiciary is the pronouncement of the rule that becomes binding. It settles the disputes between the people and prevents that which harms the community’s rights, or it eliminates the disputes arising between people and members of the ruling system – both rulers and civil servants – from the Head of State downwards.

The origin of the judiciary and its legitimacy is the Book and the Sunnah.

As for the Book, the words of Allah (swt)

((وَأَنِ احْكُمْ بَيْنَهُمْ بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ ))

And judge, [O Muhammad], between them by what Allah has revealed.(TMQ 5:45), and His (swt) words

((وَإِذَا دُعُوا إِلَى اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَهُمْ))

And when they are called to [the words of] Allah and His Messenger to judge between them.(TMQ 24:48).

As for the Sunnah, the Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلمused to undertake the judiciary by himself and judge between the people, such as what Bukhari narrated from 'Aisha (ra), the wife of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم, that she said

(كَانَ عُتْبَةُ بْنُ أَبِي وَقَّاصٍ عَهِدَ إِلَى أَخِيهِ سَعْدِ بْنِ أَبِي وَقَّاصٍ أَنَّ ابْنَ وَلِيدَةِ زَمْعَةَ مِنِّي فَاقْبِضْهُ، قَالَتْ: فَلَمَّا كَانَ عَامُ الْفَتْحِ أَخَذَهُ سَعْدُ بْنُ أَبِي وَقَّاصٍ وَقَالَ: ابْنُ أَخِي قَدْ عَهِدَ إِلَيَّ فِيهِ، فَقَامَ عَبْدُ بْنُ زَمْعَةَ فَقَالَ: أَخِي وَابْنُ وَلِيدَةِ أَبِي وُلِدَ عَلَى فِرَاشِهِ، فَتَسَاوَقَا إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وآله وسلمفَقَالَ سَعْدٌ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، ابْنُ أَخِي كَانَ قَدْ عَهِدَ إِلَيَّ فِيهِ، فَقَالَ عَبْدُ بْنُ زَمْعَةَ: أَخِـي وَابْنُ وَلِيدَةِ أَبِي وُلِدَ عَلَى فِرَاشِهِ،فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: «هُوَ لَكَ يَا عَبْدُ بْنَ زَمْعَةَ»، ثُمَّ قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: «الْوَلَدُ لِلْفِرَاشِ وَلِلْعَاهِرِ الْحَجَرُ»)

`Utba bin Abu Waqqas took a firm promise from his brother Sa`d bin Abu Waqqas to take the son of the slave-girl of Zam`a into his custody as he was his (i.e. `Utba's) son. In the year of the Conquest (of Mecca) Sa`d bin Abu Waqqas took him, and said that he was his brother's son, and his brother took a promise from him to that effect. 'Abu bin Zam`a got up and said, "He is my brother and the son of the slave-girl of my father and was born on my father's bed." Then they both went to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم Sa`d said, "O Allah's Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم He is the son of my brother and he has taken a promise from me that I will take him." 'Abu bin Zam`a said, "(He is) my brother and the son of my father's slave-girl and was born on my father's bed." Allah's Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم said, "The boy is for you. O 'Abu bin Zam`a." Then the Prophet said, "The son is for the bed (i.e. the man on whose bed he was born) and stones for the one who has done illegal sexual intercourse”. And the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم used to appoint judges; he appointed ‘Ali (ra) as the judge over Yemen and he صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم gave him instructions about how to judge by saying:

«إِذَا تَقَاضَى إِلَيْكَ رَجُلاَنِ، فَلاَ تَقْضِ لِلأَوَّلِ حَتَّى تَسْمَعَ كَلامَ الآخَرِ، فَسَوْفَ تَدْرِي كَيْفَ تَقْضِي»

“Do not judge for the first until you have heard the statement of the other. Soon you will know how to judge.” reported by Al-Tirmidhi, and Ahmad, and in the report of Ahmad with the wording

«إِذَا جَلَسَ إِلَيْكَ الْخَصْمَانِ، فَلا تَكَلَّمْ حَتَّى تَسْمَعَ مِنْ الآخَرِ كَمَا سَمِعْتَ مِنَ الأَوَّلِ»

“When two litigants sit in fron of you, do not decide (and speak) until you listen from the second what you have heard from the first.”

The method of adjudication carried out by the Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم can be deduced from the narration of 'Aisha (ra) that Sa’ad and ‘Abd Bin Zuma’ah disputed over the son of Zuma’ah, so each one of them claimed that he was his. The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم informed them of the Shari’ah rule that the son of Sawda bint Zuma’ah was the brother of ‘Abd Bin Zuma’ah, and that the child belongs to the one on whose bed it is born. Therefore, his صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم judgement was information about the Shari’ah rule which he then enforced upon them, and so Abd Bin Zuma’ah took the child. This is the proof for Article 75, which gives the definition of the judiciary, and this definition serves as a description of the reality. However, since it is a Shari’ah reality, and since the Shari’ah definition is in fact a Shari’ah rule, it ,therefore, requires evidence from which it is to be deduced, and this narration serves as an evidence for the definition of the judiciary found in this article.

Some people defined the judiciary as being the “settling of disputes between people”, and this definition is deficient from one angle, and from another angle it is not a description of the reality of the judiciary as reflected in the Messenger of Allah’s صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم actions and sayings. Rather, this definition is merely an explanation of what may or may not occur from the judiciary. The judge may rule upon the case and not settle the dispute between the parties. Therefore, the comprehensive and exclusive definition would be the one mentioned in this article and it has been deduced from the narrations.

Also, this definition includes the judgement between people, and this is mentioned in the narration of 'Aisha (ra). It also includes the Hisbah (public order) which is: “Conveying the Shari’ah rule for the purpose ofenforcing it regarding that which causes harm to the rights of the community”. This is what has been narrated in the narration of the heap of food. It is narrated in Sahih Muslim on the authority of Abu Huraira that

«أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم مَرَّ عَلَى صُبْرَةِ طَعَامٍ فَأَدْخَلَ يَدَهُ فِيهَا فَنَالَتْ أَصَابِعُهُ بَلَلاً، فَقَالَ: مَا هَذَا يَا صَاحِبَ الطَّعَامِ؟ قَالَ: أَصَابَتْهُ السَّمَاءُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، قَالَ: أَفَلاَ جَعَلْتَهُ فَوْقَ الطَّعَامِ كَيْ يَرَاهُ النَّاسُ، مَنْ غَشَّ فَلَيْسَ مِنِّي»

The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم happened to pass by a heap of eatables. He thrust his hand in that (heap) and his fingers were moistened. He said to the owner: What is this? He replied: Messenger of Allah, these have been drenched by rainfall. He صلى الله عليه وآله وسلمremarked: Why did you not place this (the drenched part of the heap) over other eatables so that people could see it? He who deceives is not of me (is not my follower).and in the report in Ahmad and Ibn Maja and Al-Darimi

«مَنْ غَشَّـنَا فَلَيْسَ مِنِّا»

“He who deceives us is not from us”.

It also includes the Madhalim (injustices), because they are part of the judiciary and not part of the ruling, since they are complaints against the ruler. The Madhalim is defined as “Conveying the Shari’ah rule for the purpose of enforcing it regarding the disputes which occur between the people and the Khalifah, his governors or civil servants, and regarding what occurs between the Muslims due to differences in the meaning a text from the Shari’ah texts used in order to judge bythem and to rule according to them.” The Madhalim were mentioned in the narration of the Messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله وسلمregarding the fixing of prices where he said:

«وَإِنِّي لأَرْجُو أَنْ أَلْقَى اللَّهَ وَلا يَطْلُبُنِي أَحَـدٌ بِمَظْلِمَةٍ ظَلَمْـتُهَا إِيَّـاهُ فِي دَمٍ وَلا مَالٍ»

“And I am hopeful that I will meet Allah and none of you are seeking (recompense from) me for an injustice (I have inflicted) involving blood or wealth.” reported by Ahmad from Anas Bin Malik,and in his صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم words

«مَنْ أَخَذْتُ لَهُ مَالاً فَهَذَا مَالِي فَلْيَأْخُذْ مِنْهُ، وَمَنْ جَـلَـدْتُ لَهُ ظَهْراً فَهَذَا ظَهْرِي فَلْيَقْتَصَّ مِنْهُ»

“Whoever I took property from, here is my property; let him take from it, and whosever back I whipped, here is my back to take recompense from.” reported by Abu Ya’la from Al-Fadl Bin ‘Abbas. Al-Haythami said that ‘Ata’ b. Muslim, who is in the chain of Abu Ya’la, has been considered trustworthy by Ibn Hibban and others, whereas others have weakened him, and the rest of the narrators are trustworthy. This indicates that the issue of the ruler, governor or civil servant is raised to the judge of the Court of Injustices (Madhalim) in any claim of an injustice, and the judge of the Court of Injustices (Madhalim) conveys the Shari’ah rule which would be binding.

Based upon this, the definition would encompass the three types of judiciary reflected in the narrations and actions of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم. These are the settling of disputes between people, preventing whatever may harm the rights of the community and the settling of the disputes between the subjects and the rulers, or between the subjects and the civil servants in their work.

Einige Artikel der Verfassung

Kalifat (Kalifatsstaat), die Verfassung;

Artikel 12: Die Beweisquellen der islamischen Rechtssprüche

Artikel 12: Koran, Sunna, der Konsens der Prophetengefährten (Idschma / Idschmāʿ aṣ-Sahāba) und der Analogieschluss (Qiyās) stellen die einzigen Beweisquellen dar, die für die islamischen Rechtssprüche gültig sind. more
Das Kalifat (Kalifatsstaat), die Verfassung,

Artikel 73: Das Ressort für auswärtige Angelegenheiten

Artikel 73 - Das Ressort für auswärtige Angelegenheiten befasst sich mit allen Außenangelegenheiten, die mit der Beziehung des Kalifatsstaates zu fremden Staaten in Verbindung stehen. Dazu zählen politische, wirtschaftliche, industrielle und landwirtschaftliche Aspekte, genauso wie Aspekte des Binnenhandels, der Funk- und Telekommunikationsverbindungen, des Postwesens und Ähnliches. more
Das Kalifat (Kalifatsstaat), die Verfassung,

Artikel 114: Rechte, Pflichten und Besonderheiten der Frau und des Mannes

Artikel 114: Der Frau werden dieselben Rechte zuerkannt wie dem Mann, und ihr obliegen auch dieselben Pflichten bis auf das, was der Islam durch Rechtsbelege ihr oder dem Mann speziell zugeschrieben hat. Sie hat das Recht, Handel und Landwirtschaft zu betreiben, industriellen Tätigkeiten nachzugehen, Verträge abzuschließen und Rechtsbeziehungen (Muamalat / Muʿāmalāt)einzugehen. Sie hat das Recht… more
Das Kalifat (Kalifatsstaat), die Verfassung,

Artikel 150: Ausgaben von den Steuern

Artikel 150: Reichen die ständigen Einkünfte des Schatzhauses nicht aus, um die Ausgaben des Staates zu decken, kann der Staat Steuern von den Muslimen einheben. Die Einhebung von Steuern dient folgenden Zwecken: a) Zur Deckung der für das Schatzhaus verpflichtenden Ausgaben für die Armen, die Bedürftigen, den mittellosen Reisenden (Ibn as-Sabīl) und zur Durchführung der Pflichtdes Dschihad /… more
Das Kalifat (Kalifatsstaat), die Verfassung,

Artikel 177: Der Lehrplan und die Schulen

Artikel 177: Der Lehrplan ist an allen Schulen einheitlich. Ein anderer Lehrplan als der des Staates wird nicht zugelassen. Privatschulen werden nicht verboten, solange sie sich an den staatlichen Lehrplan halten, auf der vorgegebenen Bildungsstrategie aufbauen und die Bildungspolitik und ihr Ziel durch sie verwirklicht werden. Eine weitere Bedingung ist, dass sie weder unter den Schülern noch… more
Verfassung des Kalifats Staates;

Article 4: Beschränkung der Annahme der Gesetze

Artikel 4: Der Kalif adoptiert keinen spezifischen Rechtsspruch in den Ibadat (gottesdienstliche Handlungen), ausgenommen in Bereichen der Zakat und des Dschihad (Ǧihād), und adoptiert keine Ideen in Bereichen, die mit der islamischen Aqida (Überzeugungsfundament) zusammenhängen. more
Das Kalifat (Kalifatsstaat), die Verfassung,

Artikel 37: Bestimmungen der Adaption der islamischen Rechtsprüche und Gesetze

Artikel 37: Der Kalif ist in der Adoption an die islamischen Rechtssprüche gebunden. Es ist ihm verboten, ein Gesetz zu adoptieren, das nicht korrekt aus den islamischen Beweisquellen abgeleitet wurde. Er ist an das gebunden, was er an Rechtssprüchen adoptiert und wozu er sich als Methode der Gesetzesableitung verpflichtet hat. Es ist ihm weder erlaubt, ein Gesetz zu adoptieren, das gemäß einer… more