Artikel 132: Das Verfügen über das erworbene Eigentum ist an die Erlaubnis des Gesetzgebers (Allahs) gebunden, sei es zu dessen Ausgabe oder Vermehrung. Ausgeben im Verbotenen (Saraf), Überschwang (Taraf) und Geiz sind untersagt. Kapitalistische Unternehmen, Genossenschaften und alle weiteren Rechtsbeziehungen (Muamalat / Muʿāmalāt), die dem islamischen Gesetz widersprechen, sind verboten. Auch Zinsen, betrügerische Übervorteilung, Monopolisierung, Glücksspiel und dergleichen sind verboten.
Article 132: The disposal of property is restricted by the permission of the Legislator (swt), for both of spending and investment. Squandering, extravagance and miserliness are all forbidden. Capitalist companies, co-operatives and any other type of transactions which contradict the Shari’ah are forbidden. Interest, fraud, monopolies, gambling and anything similar are all forbidden.
The evidence for this is the evidence regarding spending wealth and the evidence of verbal disposals of wealth such as selling, renting and so on, which are the evidences regarding increasing property.
As for the evidence of expenditure, Allah (swt) said:
((لِيُنْفِقْ ذُو سَعَةٍ مِنْ سَعَتِهِ)) [الطلاق 7]، وقال تعـالى في النهي عن الإسراف: ((وَلَا تُسْرِفُوا إِنَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُسْرِفِين)) [الأنعام]، وقال: ((وَلَا تُبَذِّرْ تَبْذِيرًا (26) إِنَّ الْمُبَذِّرِينَ كَانُوا إِخْوَانَ الشَّيَاطِينِ)) [الإسراء]، وقال في النهي عن التقتير:((وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا أَنْفَقُوا لَمْ يُسْرِفُوا وَلَمْ يَقْتُرُوا وَكَانَ بَيْنَ ذَلِكَ قَوَامًا (67)))
“Let a man of wealth spend from his wealth.” (TMQ 65:7).
Regarding the prohibition of squandering, Allah (swt) said: “And be not excessive (extravagant). Indeed, He does not like those who commit excess.” (TMQ 7:31), and He (swt) said: “And do not spend wastefully; Indeed, the wasteful are brothers of the devils.” (TMQ 17:26-7).
With respect to the prohibition of miserliness, Allah (swt) said: “And [they are] those who, when they spend, do so not excessively or sparingly but are ever, between that, [justly] moderate.” (TMQ 25:67).
With respect to verbal disposals, the Legislator (swt) restricted them to specific transactions, such as selling, rent, partnership, and so on, and specified the manner they should be undertaken and prohibited any other method. The Prophet said:
«مَنْ عَمِلَ عَمَلاً لَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ أَمْرُنَا فَهُوَ رَدٌّ»
“If anyone introduces in our matter something which does not belong to it, it is rejected.” (reported by Muslim from Aisha(ra)). So this is a restriction that the transactions have to be carried out upon a specific method, and a clear prohibition of specific transactions, which is that the transactions to increase wealth are restricted to that which is in accordance with the permission of the Legislator (swt).
There are actions which have been ordered to be undertaken based upon a specific restricted form, and the Shari’ah texts related conditions for the concluding of a transaction and conditions for its validity in a decisive manner. Therefore, to carry out this transaction upon the form that has been explained by the Shari’ah text is obligatory, and it should fulfil all the conditions for contraction and the validity that were mentioned in the Shari’ahtext. If it was undertaken in a manner which contradicts the text or does not fulfil all the conditions for contraction and validity, then it has contradicted the Shari’ah, and it would either be invalid if the conditions on contraction were not met, or defective if it contradicted anything that the Shari’ah ordered or prohibited. This would be a contradiction against the Shari’ah, in other words, a contradiction of the orders and prohibitions of Allah (swt), which is sinful since it is considered to be something that the Shari’ah forbade.
An example of that is the Shari’ahcontract: the Legislator (swt) ordered that it should be between two contracting parties; the Prophet said:
“The two parties to a transaction both have the choice.” (agreed upon from Ibn Umar and Hakim Bin Hizam), and Allah (swt) said in a Qudsi narration:
«أَنَا ثَالِثُ الشَّرِيكَيْنِ»
“I make a third with two partners.” (reported by Abu Dawud from Abu Hurayrah, and he authenticated it and Al-Dhahabi confirmed it). And He (swt) ordered the contract to be upon offer and acceptance. So if the contract in any transaction does not fulfil these conditions: two contracting parties along with offer and acceptance, the contract is invalid and not concluded. Any action which occurred in this transaction is considered as a sin and a Haram action, since it would be considered a transaction that the Shari’ah had forbidden. An example of that would be the share companies, since they are concluded from one side, and by someone simply signing to the conditions of the company they become a partner and also by simply buying shares in the company they become a partner. According to the capitalists this is from the actions of individual choice, like an endowment or bequest in Islam. So in the share company there are not two contracting parties but rather there is only one party, and there is no offer and acceptance - rather there is acceptance alone. In the Shari’ah the company must be based upon a contract of offer and acceptance between two contracting parties, and similar to it is selling, renting, marriage and any other comparable contracts. Accordingly, the share company is not contracted and so is invalid and Haram, since it contradicts the Shari’ah and is considered to be prohibited by it. The share company neglected the order of Allah (swt) with respect to the conditions of contracting a company, and is an action that Allah (swt) prohibited since He (swt) prohibited people from contradicting His (swt) orders:
((فَلْيَحْذَرِ الَّذِينَ يُخَالِفُونَ عَنْ أَمْرِهِ))
“So let those beware who dissent from the Prophet's order.” (TMQ 24:63). Therefore, establishing such a company would be committing a sin and a Haram action, and so it is from the transactions forbidden by the Shari’ah because every invalid contract is Haram.
In a similar fashion, life insurance, or any insurance for goods or property is Haram, since it is a contract between the insurance company and the insuring person in which the latter asks the insurance company to give him a promise that it will compensate him for that object which he loses or for its price with regard to goods or property, or a certain sum of money with regard to life and the like such as insurance for a limb. This takes place if the accident which was specified occurs within a defined period in exchange for a certain amount of money. In insurance there is no person being guaranteed, nor a joining of liabilities, since there is no person present who the company guaranteed and joined their liability to. Also in insurance there is no financial obligation for the believer with anyone that the insurance company committed him to, since the believer did not have a financial obligation to anyone, and then the company came and guaranteed him. Insurance is a guarantee, and the guarantee according to the Shari’ah is the joining of the liability of the guarantor with that of the one being guaranteed to fulfil the obligation, and so it is imperative that there should be a joining of liabilities, and there must be a guarantor, someone being guaranteed, and the issue that he is being guaranteed for, and it is imperative that it is a guarantee for a confirmed obligation they are liable for. These are the conditions for contraction and validity in the guarantee, and as long as the insurance contract does not fulfil these Shari’ah conditions then it is invalid according to the Shari’ah and is Haram. Therefore, to take out insurance is committing a sin and a Haram action and consequently is a transaction that the Shari’ah prohibited because every invalid transaction is Haram.
These actions such as partnerships and guarantees have been restricted to a specific manner and specific conditions explained by Shari’ah texts, and so it is obligatory to be bound to them, and this is proof that the actions to increase property are restricted by the permission of the Legislator (swt).
There are actions which have had direct prohibitions related, such as fraud, due to what was narrated from Abdullah Bin Umar (ra) that a man mentioned to the Prophet that he had been cheated in a sale, so he said:
((فَلْيَحْذَرِ الَّذِينَ يُخَالِفُونَ عَنْ أَمْرِهِ))
“When you enter a transaction, say, “No trickery.” (agreed upon from Ibn Umar). And he said:
«بَيْعُ الْمُحَفَّلاَتِ خِلاَبَةٌ وَلاَ تَحِلُّ الْخِلاَبَةُ لِمُسْلِمٍ»
“Selling Muhaffalahs (unmilked animals) (to deceive the buyer) is trickery, and trickery is not lawful for the Muslim” (reported by Ahmad and Ibn Maja from Abdullah Bin Mas’ud, and Ibn Abi Shaybah and ‘Abd Al-Razzaq reported it Mawquf (the chain ends at the companion) to Ibn Mas’ud with an authentic chain). Accordingly fraud is Haram, as well as actions like monopolising, due to the words of the Prophet :
«مَنْ احْتَكَرَ فَهُوَ خَاطِئٌ»
“Whoever monopolises is in error”, (reported by Muslim from Mu’ammar b. ‘Abd Allah Al-‘Adawi), and like gambling due to the words of Allah (swt):
((يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالْأَنْصَابُ وَالْأَزْلَامُ رِجْسٌ مِنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ (90))) [المائدة]. وكالربا لقوله تعالى: ((وَأَحَلَّ اللَّهُ الْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبَا))
“O you who have believed, indeed, intoxicants, gambling, [sacrificing on] stone alters [to other than Allah], and divining arrows are but defilement from the work of Satan, so avoid it that you may be successful.” (TMQ 5:90). Similarly, interest, due to words of Allah (swt): “But Allah has permitted trade and has forbidden interest (Usury).” (TMQ 2:275). This clear prohibition for these actions and those similar to them is a restriction upon how to conduct the increase in property, as it should not be done through these and similar transactions. This is another evidence that the action to increase property is restricted by the permission of the Legislator (swt).